The concepts and the relics which have been left from the martyrs (material and intellectual) they establish an important collection for Shia which in this researches it is devoted for the culture of martyrdom. This research is according to the outlooks of Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Khameneyee in relation with the Muslim scientists relating to culture of martyrdom has been provided. So some methods and solutions for the betterment of culture of martyrdom have been obtained. The researcher according to the questionnaire and library studies has provided some results which are as bellow:
1.The culture of martyrdom includes all the relics which have been left of the martyrs such as intellectual relics, beliefs, behavioral beliefs, objectives and other intellectual objectives which are taken from Quran.
And the material relics include: the greatness of martyr, personal tools, the list of streets, and the occasions related to the martyrs, the written relics and the whole things that can be observed and touched and can remind the martyrs.
2.The researcher has considered the three main characteristics that include:
1.Culture is general but is special
2.Culture is fixed but is variable
3.Culture is compulsive but is optional
And the characteristics of martyrdom are considered which are related to the culture of martyrdom in a way.
3.Some of the martyrdom operations include: giving the life for keeping the values, sacrificing points to the society and the people of society, creating the identity and having common objective between the people of society, social dependency, creating the spirit of justice in the society and keeping the independency of country against the foreigners , creating happiness for the people of society.
4.The culture of martyrdom is the cultural coverage, or in another statement it has the characteristics of martyrdom and many points of them are needed to be learned because they are a good guidance for the society and they can be trained gradually.
5.Imam Khomeini, counts the objective of fight as the keeping point of Islam and the notes of Quran. Martyrdom will be provided only if it be together with the belief to God. The objective of martyrdom is the divine justice, accomplishment of Islam, strengthening the Islam and keeping the intellectual values, the greatness of religion and in one word performing the rights.
The relics of martyrs in the outlook of Imam Khomeini can be said as bellow:
Irrigating the tree of Islam, getting the new life of nation, creating the waves in the world, the government of poor people, assurance the personality of nation, supporting the sprit of nation, providing independency and freedom, removing the barriers of society, assurance of Islam and revolution, cutting the hands of authorities which are interfering in the affairs of government. Imam Khomeini says that the will of martyrs is the betterment and improvement of poor people.
5.Ayatollah Khameneyee has the same outlook as Imam Khomeini. He says that martyr is the symbol of attempts and perseverance. Martyrdom is the best way of dieing; Martyrdom will be shaped as the main option and moving towards a better society and reaching to the word of Allah. Martyrdom can be assured the nation’s dependency and prides for it.
He uses the phrase of martyrdom. And we have this right to continue the way of martyrs and the values and cultures of martyrdom should be considered.
One of the ways for keeping alive the name and remembrance of martyrs, is continuing the way of them and encouragement of their actions and their sacrifice. And it should be under attention that this society should never be under the control of cruel persons and this matter will be done if we remind the sacrifices of martyrs. In the speeches of martyrs two aspects are mentioned that firstly is the message of martyrdom and the other is keeping the ambitions of martyrs.
In the belief of Ayatollah Khameneyee, Keeping the culture of martyrdom is for setting martyr which is the formal providence of material and intellectual life of martyrs family and spreading the culture of martyrdom in the society. And the cultural attempts should be done for the special organization which acts in this field. In the cultural works the cultural spirits should be under attention.
6.Instructor Motahari starts the discussion about the greatness of martyrdom. Martyrdom means giving all the things that you have in a sacred way of war which its dimensions show the generosity, so in Islam the knowing death in the way of God is called martyrdom.
Instructor Motahari expresses the most greatness of martyr which is his sacrifices which are for the society. And these works would bring happiness for the community. The martyr would be always alive in the society by the blood that gives in the way of God. Martyrs are the generous persons who have given their life for the betterment situation of society.
Martyrdom in our culture is counted as a grade or degree, is a great responsibility and is the fast way for complement of mankind and is the culture of Imam Hossein and Ashura. Martyr is the heart of history which gives life to the society.
9. By the outlook of Doctor Beheshti it can be said that one of the important values in the Islamic culture can be martyrdom, which is a lesson that is taken of Imam Hossein and Ashura Hosseini. Martyrdom for ambition can be counted as a tool, but for the humans is something similar to objective. If martyrdom does not be due to God and Quran, will not be named martyrdom, so that it should be done for God.
10. By the outlook of Martyr Avini, Karbala, Ashura, Hossein and martyr are the divine words which are sacred and they are the ways for reaching to God. In the outlook of martyr Avini, everybody can be given on the line of Karbala, but the main condition is that to have regret and repentance.
11. By the outlook of Ayatollah Taleghani, the aim of going away and the difference between killings is martyrdom; the person has sought the right and is killed so that martyrdom is given to him or her. A revolutionary movement can be counted martyrdom and this greatness can save a society. Of course this action should be done in a honest way.
12. By the outlook of Hashemi Najad, martyr belongs to the society of humans and Islam and God, this person is so great in front of God, martyrdom is known as a new born in his outlook and the forever life is given to martyr.
13. By the outlook of Doctor Dinani, martyr is called Shahed, and Shahed is something that observes something which is liked and wanted by heart. He has referred. In the comments of him martyrdom is something forms the objectives of martyrs and the society will be in a better situation. So it can be said that the martyrdom is a social matter which is political too. Essentially martyrdom is a necessary and natural phenomenon. But at the same time it is needed for the society and the history of life. After the martyrdom the separation between history and society will not occur. At the end research has considered the two concepts of society and culture which are related to the culture of martyrdom and the following suggestions in relation with this culture of martyrdom have been provided.
1. Informal improvement of martyrdom culture by creating the necessary environment by the method form down to upper side and not from upper side to down. Some samples like this kind include:
1.1- The voluntarily encouragement of university students for researching and performing the thesis project in the filed of martyr and martyrdom
1.2- In the schools instead of the lesson of writing or some other lessons, the students should be encouraged to provide texts about the martyrs, their family and many other aspects about them. And The researches that are provided by this way can be published by the newspapers too.
1.3- The spread point of tie and place in the field of martyr and martyrdom:
Martyr is belonged to all the people and in a way all the people and groups and the owners of thoughts can improve the field of martyr and martyrdom.
14. The publication of martyrdom culture by writing and newspapers.
All the newspapers can react the culture of martyrdom and encourage the writers to provide texts in this field.
2- Stating the reality: Some persons when they are affected at the time of martyrdom, pass from the middle of life reality that might this matter are different at the time of martyrdom. When they talk about martyr, they should say the good points of martyr and prevent of saying the bad points.
The realities of life should be mentioned about martyr so that it can be a good imitation for other people in the society.
3. Martyrs Museum: Providing the encouragement opportunities for the inspection of public from the museum of martyrs, which is a reasonable activity for the development of martyrdom culture. So that the remembrance of martyrs can be performed nicely.
4. Providing the inventive methods in the communication tools: If the lack of invention occur for a long time in this field it can be ineffective. And all the attempts of providers in this field will be wasted. So in this case it is suggested that some variables and inventions in this field be created.
5. Those who introduce the martyrs and say the good points of them, if they can not continue their way , at least they should not be against them. In fact some of the martyrs defend badly and eventually it will have some losses for the culture of martyrdom.