News ID: 44899
Publish Date: 23 May 2007 - 13:28

Introduction of books with the subject of Khoramshahr

1. The Beit-ol-Moghadas Operation and Khoramshahr Liberation

 Collection & Edition: general staff brigadier 2 Masood Bakhtiyari

Year of Publication: 1380

First Edition

Publisher: Iran Sabz Publication

Price: 1600 Tomans

 

The Beit-ol-Moghadas Operation and Khoramshahr Liberation

 In the book " Beit-ol-Moghadas Operation and Khoramshahr Liberation", it has been tried to review from the beginning of the operation to Iraqi forces exit, in details.

The operation called "beit-ol-Moghadas" which was performed with cooperation of commands consisting Bsij forces, the Islamic revolution guards of Sepah, the construction Jihad as well as supporting air force and navy from the date of Ordibehesht 10th to Khordad 4th, 1361, for 26 days and in the southwest of Ahwaz, was one of the most brilliant operational results of Iranian armed forces against aggressors. In addition to ending 19 months military occupation of the most decisive parts of Khuzestan, this operation hit Iraqi aggressive forces hard.

By the military and political products of this huge battle, Iran and Iraq?s war entered a new phase. In this phase, Iraq was put in a passive position and instead, our military forces got the military power status and, to end the war and make the aggressor accept whole Iran?s conditions, continued the war beyond frontiers.

Considering such tangible fact, the operation " Beit-ol-Moghadas" was designed and performed following a series of past small and big offensive operations, but larger than them. It was designed to destroy more Iraq's military balance and the aggressor's warlike intention and driving it to a passive political and military position as well as Khoramshahr liberation which was considered as a national plan.

The characteristics of this operation comparing to the previous and next ones, during the sacred defense, were short-time preparation, the wide range of the area, duration, offensive operation by passing through the river for the first time, the large number of POWs, the enemy's severe casualties and damages, the importance and value of the liberated areas and at last, its political, military and psychological products.

Designing and preparing for such operation, immediately after Fat-hol-Mobin operation, started quickly and performed one month after it.       

Regarding the importance of this operation aims and the liberated areas, we should take them from two aspects of tactical and strategic values. Generally speaking, Iran's strategic aim in the imposed war consisted of using Iranian potentialities and capabilities in suppressing enemies and military invaders to Iran and, especially, punishing Iraqi Baas regime. Such strategic aims are briefed in Iran's conditions for ending the war.

Another designed aim in this operation, having simultaneous strategic and tactical values, was our forces reach to the eastern bank of Shat-ol-Arab river and threat of Basra. Considering this city's value and importance which is the second city of Iraq from the point of position, population, size and economical-industrial centers as well as being the biggest and most equipped harbor of Iraq; it is clear that threatening or securing it, may play a decisive role in Iran and Iraq?s war.

Finally, another feature of Beit-ol-Moghadas operation is its political-military result. It will suffice to say that most people believe the products of this operation had contrived sufficiently to end the war for Iran.

The present book contains the detailed military history of Beit-ol-Moghadas operation and Khoramshahr conquest from the very beginning of design to performance and direction. It can be used and cited by researchers and historians of the imposed war, instructors and students of military universities and other interested researchers.   

 

 From Khooninshahr (bloody city) to Khoramshahr

 Writer: Mohammad Doroodian

Publisher: the war research and study center of the Islamic Revolution Guards of Sepah 

The 6th edition: 1380

Price: 600 Tomans

 

The lack of adjustment of political objectives to military power

 Iraq's military power was not adjusted to its objectives when invaded to Iran because of people's revolutionary resistance, terrain situation of Iran and other natural barriers. Iraqi war machine was separated in the great land of Khuzestan and so, it lost the necessary power to continue invasion effectively.

Iraqi Army which had lost its forces concentration and suffered the shortage of caution power; could not fortify the south front and, the division 3 could not find the chance of passing through Bahmanshir river. Consequently, such power separation, power shortage and involvement in a wide front blocked any advance and had them resort to a defensive shell, build fortifications and reinforce its defensive positions.

After the cease-fire request from Saddam and rejection of the Islamic republic of Iran, the enemy had just two ways to choose:

  1. retreat from the primary positions and claims; especially, cancellation of 1975 treaty of Algeria :

according to the extended political-military stratagems of Iraq, retreat from the regions being occupied as a bargaining chip in the primary advances, was considered as committing suicide by Saddam.

  1. keeping the present position in order to making Iran accept political negotiations:     

Iraq's regime considered Iran does not have enough power to liberate the occupied areas in spite of resisting against Iraq?s invasions. Thus, Iraq hoped to make Iran give points (cancellation of 1975 treaty) by deploying in those areas and stabilize it in the future.

Iraq chose the second alternative and this way, the enemy made its second strategic mistake by deploying offensive forces in incomplete defensive positions. Considering the beginning of rain and cold season, such forces, without being deployed in suitable positions or damaging Iranian forces, gave Iran a pleasant chance to prepare for liberating the occupied areas along with solving interior problems. 

 

 Khoramshahr!, Where Is Jahanara?

(From the series of the books ?The Moon Lady? No:5)

 A talk with Soghra Akbarnezhad, martyr Jahanara's wife

 

Third Edition: Summer 81

Publishers: Sooreh Mehr & Kaman publications

Price: 200 Tomans

Number of Pages:  35

 

Khoramshahr!, Where Is Jahanara?

 One of martyr Jahanara?s personal aspects was his military command in the war. A military commander is not away from danger.

 It's right; but, life and death was the same for Mohammad. One of his friends said: ?We had a meeting and Jahanara was speaking. At the same time, firing began and a bullet passed exactly beside Mohammad's ear. He didn't show any reaction; but, he shifted his body a little and kept on speaking",

Jahanara and his fellow men fought bare-handed. Banisadr didn?t pay any attention to their contacts. Banisadr had sent a message saying: "You advance!; then, we liberate Khoramshahr with a pincers movement!". He wanted to get rid of you and all Khoramshahr guys. When Jahanara came to Tehran and met Imam, he told everything. Martyr Rajaee who was present in that meeting, called our home and told me to tell Jahanara that "Banisadr wouldn't send armament; despite, Imam emphasized to send it. So, you should fight resorting to God". Banisadr promised Imam to prepare equipments. Even, Imam upbraided Banisadr because of that matter. Jahanara and his friends believed, as a military commander, that they must stand and resist although they are not helped.

 

Khoramshahr in a Long War

 Writers: Mehdi Ansari, Mohammad Doroodian, Hadi Nakhaaee

Search & Organization: War Research and Study Center

- Production Management

Second Edition: 1377

Price: 1250 Tomans

 

 Khoramshahr In A Long War

 The book "Khoramshahr In A Long War" reviews Khoramshahr resistance not only in the first 35 days of the imposed war; but, in a long war whose mentioned 35 days are considered as one of its periods. Involvement of Khoramshahr in ethnic struggles which was, willy-nilly, related to Iraq?s interests; established an epic resistance preparation for Khoramshahr during the imposed war. The book content shows how defenders of Khoramshahr were born, formed and made so that, finally, they played an important historic role.

The present book contains two separate parts. The first part is titled " Khoramshahr, the arena of Iraq's interest" and has four chapters.

In chapter one, there's a review about the political situations in Khoramshahr before the revolution. Introducing ethnic attitudes, it gives a brief explanation of their activities as well as Iraq's efforts in misuse Arabic language of people in this region. As it continues, it explains the religious circumstances in Khoramshahr and their situation. At the end, the revolution days and Ayatollah Shobeir Khaghani's position in those days are reviewed in a brief.   

In chapter two, titled as "Accursed struggle of ethnic attitude in Khoramshahr?, it reviews the beginning of ethnic activities in Khoramshahr after the revolution victory, and their effort in dominance over Khoramshahr, supported by Iraqi regime and Sheikh Shobeir. Then, it refers to the religious forces efforts in Khoramshahr to oppose the anti-revolutionary and ethnic activities and their struggles. During these struggles, Iraq spirited up its internal elements by its movements and stimulated them to keep on producing tension. The anti-revolutionists intensified tension by spotlighting Sheikh Shobeir, vandalism, armed rallies and mottoes like "self-government for Arabestan, democracy for Iran". This chapter explains how the revolutionary movement appeared and how ethnicity and self-government attitudes ended.

The third chapter, titled ?Iraq?s new position in the US strategy?, talks about Iraq's preparation period for entering an all-out military war. In this chapter, reviewing the reasons of "Albakr's fall and the beginning of Saddam's dictatorship, it explains the future of his rule. This chapter is continued by reviewing Iran's economical blockade and disconnection between Iran and the USA. At the end of this chapter, there is a hint to Tabas failure, Nozheh coup and the imposed war countdown.

In chapter four, titled "Khoramshahr in explosions war", the writer talks about Iraq's tactical change after the failure of "Arabestan making" in Khuzestan by internal dependant groups and through overt activities covered by self-government attitudes and ethnicity. After a review on explosions, the identity of bomb-planting elements and explosions effects and ranges; this chapter gives a list of numerous explosions in different parts of Khuzestan during one year before the war beginning being done by Iraq's elements. It contains a brief of those incidents including time, place and the news source.

The second part of the book, titled "Khoramshahr in Iraq's widespread invasion?, contains 6 chapters in which the process of Iraq's final preparations to begin the direct military invasion until Khoramshahr occupation is explained comprehensively.

The first chapter of this part which is the fifth chapter of the book, is titled "Khoramshahr, at the beginning of Iraq's invasion". First of all, it talks about Khoramshahr and boundary positions at the end of 1359 and then, it refers to the military status and attempts being done followed by Iraq's boundary movements. While this chapter goes on, it takes a general look at Iraq's boundary movements after the revolution and the reactions of the Islamic republic authorities to them. At the end of this chapter, the invasion plan and organization of Iraqi regime in the south have been offered.

The sixth chapter is titled "dreaming of Khoramshahr easy occupation". At the beginning of this chapter, the writer refers to the situation of Shahrivar 31st, 1359 in Khoramshahr, the quality of the enemy's widespread invasion to this city, the heavy gunfire on defenseless people and people's reaction to it. Then, the way of ground attack and the beginning of invasion to our country, aggressive commands, invasion axes and the way of opposing them during the first three days of invasion is explained.

The rest of this chapter, titled "the beginning of basic resistance", talks about establishment and organization of resistance forces. Then, the moves on opposing the enemy in every axis are explained. At the end, it refers to Iraq's failure in gaining a quick victory, cease-fire suggestion from this regime and the Islamic republic's reaction.

The seventh chapter is titled "Khoramshahr occupation as the first aim and forces concentration". According to Iraq's failure in its primary strategy based on Khuzestan quick occupation, forces concentration and the main attention of Iraqi regime is drawn to occupy Khoramshahr and Abadan. To do that, some commands of Iraq's Army went on a mission whose organization has been explained in this chapter. Moreover, defenders position at the beginning of the second phase of invasion and their shortages and problems have been mentioned. Then, the second phase of the enemy's attack, dated 7/7/1359, begins from two axes of "Pol-e-no" and the pre-fabricated buildings and, its continuation in Mehr 8th and 9th from 3 axes of harbor, levee and pre-fabricated buildings has been explained as well as the way of defenders opposition and the enemy's unsuccessfulness. Furthermore, it talks about the enemy's intention in attacking to Khoramshahr by the armored forces; but, they encountered the defenders resounding confrontation and so, they failed. At the end of this chapter, it is referred to a sample of artillery gunfire effect on the defenders rest place.

The eighth chapter is titled "The ten-day war behind Khoramshahr entries". First of all, the disappointing status of backup and command as well as forces positions and organization are mentioned and then, there is a hint to the enemy's passing through Karoon river and its ignorance to precautions. As this chapter continues, there is an explanation on the process of attacks and struggles during 11th to 21st of Mehr behind Khoramshahr entries and the enemy?s efforts in entering the city; while, defenders resisted against them; and finally, the way of entering the city by invaders is expressed.

The ninth chapter, titled "The enemy in Khooninshahr (Bloody City)", explains how the enemy penetrated the city after 22 days of trying and suffering a great deal of casualties. There is also a hint to the friendly forces position, indifference to fundamental support of Khoramshahr and command of the war room. After that, the quality of the enemy's advance into the city and the selected axis is explained. This chapter ends by explaining the severe street war and the resounding opposition of Khoramshahr defenders in Mehr 24th.

The tenth chapter is titled "The final invasion and Khooninshahr occupation". At first, it explains how defenders resisted and went on a door-to-door battle to avoid falling of Khoramshahr. Then, it refers to the critical condition of backing, considering to efforts in blocking the enemy's reach to the Main mosque and its being under gunfire. As the chapter goes on, the writer expresses the enemy's planning for the final attack and occupation of Khoramshahr, the friendly and enemy forces positions before this attack, the enemy's effort in beginning the final invasion and the reason of its stop or 3-day delay. The enemy's final invasion with its equipped new-blood commands performed in multiple axes in the morning of Aban 2nd and was resisted by few survived defenders in Khoramshahr. At last, dominating over the only remained rout (Karoon bridge) by the enemy and ordering the survivors of this great epic to leave the city, Khooninshahr was occupied by the enemy and this way, the tenth chapter ends.

The book appendix, titled ?Women in Khooninshahr epic?, is a mention, though incomplete, to committed women's efforts in Khoramshahr during the 35-day resistance and, activities they did such as: direct combat with the enemy, backing combatants and relief activities.

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