News ID: 44893
Publish Date: 23 May 2007 - 13:24

 Popular defense in Khoramshahr

After brutal attack of the enemy to Khoramshahr and continue of advance to occupy this city, step by step, khoramshahr was going to be a military area and all of brave men and women of this city were getting ready for an epic and crucial defense.
In 2/7/59, about 200 people were martyred and a lot of them were injured. The result of 3-day attack of the enemy was martyrdom of 480 non-military men, women and children, people?s injury and buildings damage. Most of warehouses and installations caught fire. Most of organizations were closed without discharging equipments and documents; though, every now and then, one of them would be attacked by the enemy. Some organizations were trying to give urgent help to people incessantly.
Leaving the city by families and the ones who were unable to defend continued; while, lots of people decided to defend and obeyed Imam's order. Advancing of the enemy to the city, whoever had any facilities brought them to the battlefield to take the responsibility of a part of jihad. The ones who had weapons opposed the enemy and the ones unarmed were looking for a weapon or support combatants. Medic units were established and took the responsibility of treating injured combatants. The advance of the enemy to the city was a sign of disorganization in defending frontiers and also, revealing the weakness of defensive military forces in frontiers. Operation staff of Khoramshahr (war staff) had neither a powerful commander to make use of the present facilities and organize separate units of the Army and gendarmerie, decrease the enemy's speed and manipulate popular forces, nor it had another organized force replacing destroyed commands. Since, Khoramshahr would be threatened seriously in 3 days.
The mission of seizure and clearance of Khoramshahr was given to the eighth and ninth battalion of the special forces brigade 33. these forces considered the city's defenders few and in bad spirits based on the third corps command and, they supposed to finish clearance mission in few hours successfully. The special forces eighth battalion encountered enemy in the frontline and subsequently, the ninth battalion reached around 500 meters of "Pol-e-no" in 7/7/59 after some days of combat in the frontline. The first severe defenses of Islamic combatants damaged the enemy's forces considerably. Making numerous barriers and lowering the enemy's speed had the ninth battalion encounter the enemy. Moreover, in order to seize "pol-e-no" and facilitate advance to Khoramshahr, the tank battalion "Al Hasan", a member of the armored brigade 6 of Iraq's mechanized division 5 was dispatched to the battlefield and encoutered Iranian forces near "sooleha"; while it had no result. Iraq's division 3 was waiting for the advance of the special forces brigade 33 and the tank battalion "Al Hasan" to Khoramshahr and support of the division's left flank. Unsuccessfulness of the brigade 33 from one hand, and the necessity of quicker advance from the other hand; put the enemy in a new situation. The enemy had determined Khoramshahr harbor as the kingpin of advance after studying of suitable methods.
The invaders perception which, at first, was reaching the city had been an easy job, changed when they were encountered Iranian forces defense along with khoramshahr frontiers, between the frontier and Pol-e-no and also, in pol-e-no. Thus, the eighth battalion started its attack to the city. The lack of defenders presence in the harbor facilitated the enemy's advance in this axis at the beginning of attack. The division 3 command which was waiting for entering the city while advancing into the north of Khoramshahr levee; welcomed the present situation by receiving the advance report and ordered to continue it in the same axis.
Besides, it was decided to make some limited struggle in the Shalamcheh road to Khoramshahr for the forces inside the harbor to move easily. Also, Khoramshahr defenders dispatched some of their forces into the harbor and started attacking and resisting against the enemy immediately after getting information about the scale and extension of the enemy's new movements. At this time, the struggle started practically with the enemy who were gathered, according to the attack axis, in three areas on the Shalamcheh road, east of Pol-e-no and inside Khoramshahr harbor, on its levee. The Islamic combatants repulsed the enemy to the east of Pol-e-no attacking the enemy?s forces and this way, the enemy was frightened deathly. In this situation, the enemy's commander ordered entering the city to the tank battalion "Al Hasan", the mechanized battalion 3 of the mechanized brigade 15 and the battalion 1 of the brigade 49; while asking for help from the division 3 and promising to dispatch the auxiliary forces. The reinforced enemy forces succeeded to pass through city entry. At the same time, the enemy forces were trying to advance inside the harbor. Entering the enemy to Khoramshahr entry made changes in the resistance axis so that some of the forces struggled in the slaughterhouse, some in buildings of Taleghani precincts and some other in the train station.
Up to that time, the enemy's perception was by entering the city, defenders resistance would be terminated; but, unbelievably, they confronted a surprising and heroic resistance.
Mehr10th, 1359 was considered a successful day for Khoramshahr defenders in spite of abundant difficulties. At this day, people and tanks fought each other at the entry of Khoramshahr. At the train station, city's defenders attacked enemy's tanks instantaneously and explode them by throwing grenades and Molotov cocktails one by one. The enemy who wanted to occupy the city reinforcing its Army, failed again and retreated in spite of the slaughterhouse occupation and entering the train station. The Islamic combatants strength and speed made the enemy's commanders lose the control of their frightened and runaway forces. Some of the enemy's elements had escaped as far as Pol-e-no.
Although the Islamic combatants courage was indescribable during the resistance period in Khoramshahr; the 10th of Mehr was a special day. At this day, the enemy experienced an unpleasant failure and our combatants celebrated spiritually. After the new condition, the enemy became determined tocontinue advance, though in short distances. So, according to the new plan, it started a heavy attack in the dawn of 13/7/59 and after a lot of effort, it succeeded to advance only about 50 meters into the harbor. At this situation, the enemy started fortifying its forces again. The division 3's hurry to occupy Khoramshahr and subsequently, passing its forces from karoon river and occupying Abadan, made the division's commanders have an urgent meeting and emphasis on the necessity of quick advance and the city occupation at the end of Mehr13th. Iraqi's attack began according to a new plan; but, people?s resistance stopped the enemy again. Iraqis had some basic reasons for entering the city at this stage:
1. The lack of exact knowledge about the city conditions
2. The Islamic combatants presence inside of the city and the problems caused by their resistance as well as the enemy's fear from civil war
3. Empty space behind commands in case of entering the city and the probability of forces encirclement inside the city as well as the probability of commands disunion
Considering these problems, the major general "Abdorrahman" suggested to take some forces from "jeisho-shabi" into consideration to control the occupied areas , and to make the armored brigade 26 obey his commands. Based on this, a plan was approved including attack from multiple axis and new forces organization. The main feature of this invasion stage was the enemy"s use of wide backing gunfire as soon as the attack beginning in 16/7/59. Heavy gunfire damaged Khoramshahr severely and huge smoke columns darkened the city sky.
Through this stage, the enemy's forces approached the city center while advance into the harbor and occupied pre-fabricated buildings; but, the Khoramshahr-Ahwaz road was still in control of friendly forces.
After Iraqi s advance into pre-fabricated buildings in the north and about one kilometer from Khoramshahr state police station, resistance gradually became more extended. At first, fewer than 10 defenders were resisting in the pre-fabricated buildings; but, beginning Iraqi's advance in this axis, Iranian Army's commandos, together with native khoramshahri people and other forces, were dispatched to the region. The enemy's heavy pressure, in this axis, made Khoramshahr defenders retreat and deploy around Khoramshahr state police station.
The enemy could penetrate the city between 14th to 16th of Mehr, after reinforcement and new organization; but, the city main mosque was still accommodating the Islamic combatants as a resistance and organization base.
Khoramshahr bridge was also the joint between the eastern and western parts of the city to provide the rear of friendly forces. The enemy's advance continued with a short pace, in spite of tolerating heavy damage; while, city defenders were still resisting. The enemy was still insisting on Khoramshahr occupation because of not being succeeded considerably in other invasion axis in the south front as well as the need of Baghdad's rulers to get a spoil by which they could excuse the invasion to the Islamic republic of Iran. Then, Iraqi regime that was going to occupy Khoozestan in 3 days and meet its objectives soon, after some days of invasion and using a great part of Iraqi Army, not only could not succeed in Khozestan occupation; but also, it had to stop behind Khoramshahr entries. So, being failed in the Iraq's primary plan (instantaneous victory) in the war against the Islamic republic of Iran and being blocked by devoted combatants and many of frontier regions people, especially, Khoramshahr people who made a strong barrier against the enemy; Iraqi regime suggested cease-fire at the seventh day of war, coordinated with its universal supporters in the UN. The United Nation Security Council issued the first resolution (resolution479) about Iraq's war against Iran and urged cease-fire. In this resolution, there was no sign of the aggressor and his necessity of retreat behind of the international frontiers.
In the seventh day of the war, Saddam Hussein, the president of Iraq, suggested immediate cease-fire and negotiations. Consequently, the Iraqi regime's failure in the immediate victory plan was declared and the enemy decided to get ready to continue the war or impose an ignominious peace treaty on the Islamic republic of Iran by that cease-fire suggestion.

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