News ID: 300334
Publish Date: 09 March 2011 - 10:13

The Systematized Methods of the Theater of Resistance (From the Text to the Execution)

The earth on which we live is a part of the universe. The human beings have created special “political, economical and social systems”?. We are making use of different economical systems such as Shahrvand Shopping Centers and different transportations means inside and outside the cities. Sometimes we are suffering from the inside systems of our bodies such as our digesting system. Our body’s main important organ, that is our mind and our Neurological Central system, is a very strange system in our body that is dealing with the ways of controlling our lives. In the first look, all those systems that we have accounted for seem to be very different from each other. So why do we call all of them systems? The reason is that all of them are similar to each other from one point of view. Of course they are systems that form some parts of our body but all of these systems are dependant on each other and they have mutual correlations with each other. Referring to Dehkhoda and Moein dictionaries clarifies that the term system means method and ways and in this way it is possible from the beginning to know that for every intention and goal or to achieve at any concept it is possible to make use of different systems and basically a system does not deal with the approval or rejection of other systems. John Parker in his book of Systematization says: “. . . . . . . . .The systems were thought of as causing distinctions; while they were keeping their coherence for preservation.”?
The earth on which we live is a part of the universe. The human beings have created special “political, economical and social systems”?. We are making use of different economical systems such as Shahrvand Shopping Centers and different transportations means inside and outside the cities. Sometimes we are suffering from the inside systems of our bodies such as our digesting system. Our body’s main important organ, that is our mind and our Neurological Central system, is a very strange system in our body that is dealing with the ways of controlling our lives.
In the first look, all those systems that we have accounted for seem to be very different from each other. So why do we call all of them systems? The reason is that all of them are similar to each other from one point of view. Of course they are systems that form some parts of our body but all of these systems are dependant on each other and they have mutual correlations with each other. Referring to Dehkhoda and Moein dictionaries clarifies that the term system means method and ways and in this way it is possible from the beginning to know that for every intention and goal or to achieve at any concept it is possible to make use of different systems and basically a system does not deal with the approval or rejection of other systems. John Parker in his book of Systematization says: “. . . . . . . . .The systems were thought of as causing distinctions; while they were keeping their coherence for preservation.”?
Yet, the world “system”? has some ambiguities because although we know its meanings (or at least we think we know) it is still difficult to offer a clear and precise definition. For this reason, before defining the word “system”? it is better to know more about its necessities and its uses.

Before talking about the system there has to be an organization to put the elements and the components on their right position and to arrange them as well as to organize them; it has to present different systems along with other different goals. After organization there is a second need and it is the knowledge. The role of knowledge in the organizations shows to us that we have to start work from the begging day of the week so as knowledge becomes more useful; it is also necessary to take effective steps and to make use of technology, creativity and innovation to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organizational processes. In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, in addition to making effective use of knowledge management that is we have to take the third step which is to make use of tough minded ways to get innovation. The means and the causes are also important very much because they are the substructures in the systems that have the highest proportion and responsibility in emerging of the signs and or elements (problems and issues) and if they are understood and known we can, through them, make basic changes and real advances in the system.
In this regard Richard Harland, quoting Michael Foucault, presents the order of things as the only important topic under the title of History of Episteme in a book called “Super structuralism”? in three different areas of study of Language, the study of the economical exchange and the study of living organs of the systems. Foucault considers Renaissance, Classic, Modern, Postmodern, and Structuralism in order as the five episteme of the last six centuries; among these he considers the revolution of the 20th C. that has so far continued very important and different. The theater of Resistance is one of the outcomes of this century and it is in need of the three mentioned areas: the language within the play, the study of the economical exchanges in trying to make this movement to the every day life basket of the people and to preserve and to keep them safe and to study the living organs in the revitalization of the systems to keep these changes alive in their cultural life of the people. The development of these areas also needs three more domains: organizational part, revitalizing the texts and preparing black boxes; these are necessary for passing through some paths in a fixed way and not just for a transient period. This means the organized effort of the theater of resistance towards separation from the other systems of theater of the day and to achieve a separate and independent episteme that belongs to oneself.

System (which is sometimes called machine) such as the solar system and the system of the linear operations) is an organized set of the related elements that form a unique whole. Such a combination of the organized sets which usually form an orderly and unique organization and it is why they are called systems; it has been taken from the Persian word which has come to mean order. A part of a system which includes other parts and elements of another system is usually called sub – system. A system usually includes other parts and elements that are interrelated so as to make the process and procedures of the data, material or energy easier that what they already are. A system usually has parts that have effects on one another for which we can form the Mathematical formula to which we will later come back.
The systems are usually made in to different forms: they are either universal or galexic or cellular or biological such as the human beings and animals, or social such as factories and parties, or a combination of social and biological such as the human being who is riding a car or leads a ship or pilots an air plane; these last case is known as the human – machine systems or natural systems that can come into existence without the interference of the human beings such as the rivers and the jungles.
There have been many definitions of the systems and one reason for this variety is due to the points of view and the kinds of the system that the presenter of the definition has studied. Here I will bring some of these definitions for you:
System is a set of elements that are conducting an activity in an orderly coordination.
System is a set of coordinating elements that are cooperating to achieve a special goal for which they have come together.
System is a set of elements and variants that have been chosen consciously by an observer. These variants can be the parts of a complicated machine an organism or a social institution.
Based on the above definition that has been presented in a book published in 1960 by Ashby under the title of TEORIA GENERAL DE SISTEM VONBERTALAFFY ROSS published by comperrainmediata three different subjects are available for presenting a system:
a reality (an observed thing or a post read layer that is based on war and its consequences to the present time in the theater of resistance.
An understanding and an interpretation of the reality that refers to the time of the artists contact with it at that time with the first subject and the coming in to existence of the and even thinking and imagining about the future contexts and thinking about the ways of encountering with those problems in creating that art at the textual stage.
A statement (play) has given form to an interpretation that refers in our discussion to the execution layer and its regarded as the perform ability.
Ashby calls the first Machine, the second the system and the third a model.
System is a part of the real world which we take apart from the rest of the world by considering it in our mind for the matters of discussion and investigating different changes that occur under different conditions.

Russell Aikaff’s definition of the System:
System is a collection of two or more elements that has the following three conditions: any element of the system has its own influences on the whole behavior or characteristics of the system.
For example the elemental and orderly behavior of the theater of resistance can have influences on primary field of attracting the artists’ participation and their keeping as well as leading them towards results which is in turn refers to making full uses of their knowledge to the advanced field of executing the play (defining and setting the process) and leaving effects on the formation of this organization as a whole. Between the elements of the system from the point of view of the behavior and kind of influence on all the system is a mutual dependence.
That means the method of behavior of each element and the way that each element affects all the system, depends at least on the behavior of one element of the system. For example lack of an organizational element or its being late in any organization affects the outcome directly.

Each sub – category is composed of the elements of that collection and affects all the system in general and this effect depends at least on one other sub – category of that system. In other words the elements of a system are so related that it is not possible to form any of its sub – categories. For example it is not possible to make use of the formula or the found elements as well as the tested ones in the system of the process of text to performance of the theater of resistance in the family play or that of the Boulevards. In a way the hermeneutic cycle in which each element of the herminion achieves the totality of the message or in other words a in apple is not the same a in ash.

The above definition is one of the deep and precise definitions of the system whose complete understanding is in need of deep thinking. The followings are the results that can be inferred from the above definition about the system:
1. Each system is a whole that can not be divided into independent items.
2. Each element of the system has some characteristics and if they are separated from the system it will lose them. For example if you take brevity as an item from the war fare as a system it has no use at home as it could have had in that case.
3. Each system has characteristics that are not available in the component elements in themselves; fro example the human beings as a system can read and write and none of the parts of the body is able to do so by itself.
4. When the system is divided into independent elements it loses some of its essential qualities.
5. If the elements of an entity do not work in coordination the form a collection and not a system. In other words the important characteristics of a system are interaction and relations and the principal characteristics of the system are the results of interaction and not those of the independent behavior of the elements. For example if we place the component elements of a car separately near each other in a place, they would not form a car.

Part One: Elements

These systems have one or a group of affairs and activities that change the data and reproduce other data. These groups of the activities are called processes. Sometimes the process is called “the transformation box”? or the “black box”? because at this stage or in the inner side of this part, some operations are done in which it is possible that a part of it or even all of it is unknown for the human being or the observer. For example in the university, all the data such as the students, instructors and professors, the budget and the equipment are used for education. The process is the same changes that occur in the students and as a result of it they will add what they did not know before as a result of their pursuance and guidance of the teachers and instructors as well as through the uses of educational equipments in the universities and thereby they acquire knowledge. Such changes and alterations are themselves in need of some paradigms such as configurations between beings according to Jacque Derrida and meditation in the point of view of the theologians such as Kier Keggard, the computerized paradigm of the Structuralists, imbalance and weakening of the consequential systems in the thinking ideas of Hegel, simulation of the internal forces and the material forces on the basis of the orderly system of Spinoza . . . . . . . . . . .

The process is time consuming and it is not able to be summarized or to bypass the paths. Also it is not possible to limit a part of it or any of the processes that are available in the system. Slavmir Zizek says in an example on “Homo-seeker to the neighbor”? about the system of authority and defense of the Palestinian forces: “in fact the Palestinians suffer a lot daily and the fact is that the Palestinians and the Arab Israelis (who are formally Israeli citizens) are less advantaged in their deals, incomes as well as other affairs with regard to the Israelis. But more important than that is that this policy indicates emotional deterioration; . . . . . . . How will it be possible to expect that the Palestinian forces have the least possible authority in the eyes of the Palestinian people; they are also belittled by the everyday attack that they tolerate. . . . . . . . . . .


Feedback is one of the mechanisms that are available in most of the systems in a special way. Thermostats are the simplest mechanical device that works on the principal of feedback. Thermostats connect or disconnect the device through increase or decrease of the temperature. Some of the released missiles from the airplanes correct their paths when the waves of the radars hit them. There is also feedback in the natural systems. The living beings change their behaviors through getting signs of threats. The relationship between a live organism and its environments is a mutual relationship and is based on the principal of reaction. A live organism affects its environment. The feedback mechanism accompanies the mechanism of control. A driver who drives a car gets some information through his senses about the path and controls the car through it. The feedbacks that the driver continually gets from the environment helps him in making decisions before turning the wheels, increasing or decreasing the speed and breaking.
According to this definition, the elements and the factors that have the length systems and each of them include their width systems as well (separate from their sub – categories and their effects on each other). Each of these elements creates their feedbacks independently and it is after this that they are measured and controlled based on the independent internal systems. We are dealing with these length and width systems in the theater of resistance: the administrative system is an example of the width system which includes information on the administrators and the staffs to follow up with the files and affairs; the system of the artists include some other sub – systems such as writers, directors, players and other elements. With this definition all these systems should deal with three issues such as measurement, control and the feedbacks. Each of these systems in their processes based on the semiotics of the Pier Guiro (P . P . 78 – 79 ) create their independent signs; this means that some of them can follow their wished systems (the first part of the above example) and some of them can follow the imaginary systems (the second part of the above example) and . . . . . . . . .
Another definition of the Feedback: feedback is a process during which a signal passes through a chain of cause and effect relations, so as to have effects on itself. With regard to the second kind of effect there are two types of feedback:
Positive feedback: increase (decrease) of a variable, will finally lead to its final increase (decrease).
Negative feedback: increase (decrease) of a variable, will finally lead to its final decrease (increase).
Example: Consider a change towards irony in the subjects of the presented texts in the theater of resistance. This change might lead to different activities. For example it is possible to draw at the thoughts of the present writer towards the jokes and smiles as well as happiness of the warfare or those things that cause happiness and joy among the families of the injured soldiers or the martyrs. The activity of this change might cause the happening and extension of most of these processes and its special studies as well as the extensive researches in this regard. For example this way of looking at the irony will lead to the superficiality and the deterioration as well as rupture of the dramatic texts in the future.
But none of these have any influence on the feedback over the present condition of the dramatic texts. The important activity of the dramatic texts from the point of view of us (as interpreters) is the existence of the happy environments in performances that will increase happiness in the written texts of resistance. That means a change in the subject of the texts of the theater of resistance will cause happiness and joy in the theater if resistance.

The Second Part: Kinds
System Environment

The system is that part of the world that is under investigation. This part is separated by some borders from the environments around it. These borders can be physical or imaginary. The rest of the world is called environment. The environment of the system form elements that are placed out of the system. The identification of the environment and the environmental elements do not take place very easily, because the border of the environment is not its superficial borders. According to the definition that Churchman offers, environment includes elements and factors that are effective on the system and are not changeable. He advises the managers to ask two questions in identifying the environmental factors: First: Does the intended element have any effect on the system or not? If the answer to this question is positive then the second question is asked like this: Is the system able to change that element? In other words is it possible for it to get rid of the limitations from the way of its activities? If the answer to the second question is negative that factor is an environmental factor.
The definition of environment depends on the intention of the observer and the observed. For example a performance in the theater of resistance, for a director, is a system with all its system. But for a professional of explosives, the process of making use of the explosives is a system and the performance and its location of the performance is considered as environment. For a designer of a décor, the heating and electrical systems are irrational (they are not considered as a part of the system and its environment).

Closed System:
A closed system is a system that has no environment. In other words it is a system that has no relationship with the outside elements. In the cultural systems the closed system has no application.

State of a System:
The collection of the characteristics of a system in any moment in time is considered as the state of that system. The state of a system can be its dramatic function or perform motivity.

Stable System:
A stable system is a system that has no more than a state. No event takes place there. The system of a car with its passenger which is regarded as a system of the human being and car, is just used for the transportation and no more than transportation takes place there. The dynamic cultural systems do not include stable systems. But they include religious and customary systems. Of course there are some people who believe that the effects of the religions on the participants and this show their dynamisms but this group can not reject the existence of the events in these kinds of plays.

Dynamic System:
A dynamic system is a system whose cases change during time. There is happening in this system. The dynamism and the static quality of the system depend on cause and effect. For example an iron structure might be static from our point of view and it might be dynamic from the point of view of an engineer. Let’s have a return to the previous system: The same static system which we illustrated in the religious plays can be dynamic from the point of view of the participant or those who are conducting that sermon while it can be static in our viewpoints.

Homeostatic System
It is a kind of static system whose environment and elements are dynamic. These kinds of systems react in front of the changes in their environment as well as in front of the changes that occur from within; and this reaction is to neutralize these changes. For example consider a building that keeps the temperature inside it stable. The human body tries to keep the inner temperature at a stable point; from this point of view it is Homeostatic System.

The third part: Principles
Social systems resist against the policies

In many cases the effort to solve a problem in the social system makes it worse. The policies will create un – predicted side effects. Our decisions create reaction in other people. Forster calls these phenomena “invisible behavior of the social sciences”?. These unpredicted dynamics will lead to resist against the policies. The answer to the systems and the systems prolongs weakness and defeats. Let’s see what “anti – testimony”? means. Wikipedia says the anti – testimony is a situation that seems wrong when it is evaluated by our raw senses and documents. The scientific results are anti – testimony when sensations, documents and the cognitive processes out of the comparative reasonability considers them wrong. More important than that is the effective article of J. Forster entitled “anti – testimony behavior of the social system”? in which the writer brings quite a lot of different examples of the testimonial policies and the anti – testimony behavior of the social systems.
In order to explain the reasons for our mind’s inability in understanding anti – testimony behaviors of the complicated social systems many different cases have been proposed. These systems usually make use of the feedback mechanism and the closed loops and this leads to a dynamic behavior and our mind is not accustomed to thinking based on this frame. The number of the variables that that can be detected in a minute is limited. The time span between the happening of a phenomenon and the appearance of the later results is longer than the amount that the human mind might be able to tract it. (For example in the live systems) the relationship between the variables is usually in the forms of derivation and integral and our mind is not educated enough to suppose their behavior. The behavior of a player in a play is difficult for understanding. And ect. . . . . . . . . All these caused that the first behaviors and the testified behaviors are different from the objective behaviors of the systems. The role of the conceptual means, diagrams and the mathematics equations is that they will collect the interaction of the data-x-items of a system and thereby it will compensate for some of our mental weaknesses.
In economy, there are a lot of testimonial behavior cases. A very clear and usual example of it is the effects resulted from the changes in the prices of the goods. Change in the price of a good has income effects and at the same time it has the replacement effects that work in contrast together. The correct analysis of the consequence of these two forces is almost impossible without writing precise mathematic equations and quantitative investigations. The search models in industrial economy are another example in which with a small amount of the expense for research into the system of interpreting the plays, some very different results will appear. Suddenly different results from what we had expected will appear they are also confirmed in the experimental studies. The testimonies that we hereby mention are called Ex Post Intuitio (ref. to the 3rd subject of Ashby’s ideas regarding the establishment of a system). There are clear differences among these and the testimonies that are mainly achieved through the mental conception of the system without making use of a clear model.
John Sterman in is famous book called “Dynamism of a System”? translated by Dr. Shahram Darbani Mizaei and Etal. Brings an example in which he pays attention to the birth rate in Romania in the end of the 1960s. The birth rate (in each year for 1000 persons) is in a low level of 15 births per 1000 persons. Due to different reasons such as the national pride and the national identity the low birth rate was seriously considered by the dictatorial government of Nicola Chaoshenkov. This regime went towards designing imposing policies to encourage the rate of the birth to increase the population. The importation of devices which prevent pregnation became illegal. The promotional programs which valued the big families and having many children as a national duty were dominant. Here small amount of taxes for the big families was one of the encouraging works that the government was conducting. Abortion which was freely done in 1957 and the governmental healthcare organizations were authorized to do so was made illegal in 1966.
The results of these policies showed themselves a. .s. a. p . The birth rate increased to 40 persons in 1000 and it soon was equal with the countries which had the highest birth rate. This policy was very successful and effective at least superficially. But within the later months the birth rate was coming down. In late 1970, only four years after the conducting of this policy the rate of the birth rate decreased to 20 births per 1000 and it was about the same rate of the birth before the execution of these policies. Although this policy was continuous imposingly but the birth rate was still down coming and in the year 1989 the birth rate reached 16 births in 1000 and it was the same rate of birth that made the government conduct such policy; it is here that it should be asked about what happened. The system through the methods that the regime did not predict used to answer to the meddling in. The Romanian people came to some conclusions regarding facing with this policy. They have executed different methods of pregnation and giving birth to their children. For example they have imported to their country different devices that used to prevent pregnation through illegal ways. Poor women were seeking underground ways to abort their children and they have found some ways. Most of these methods were illegal and not healthy. It led to an increase in the number of the deaths to three times as much as it was before between the years 1967 and 1966. it cause 300 deaths and the death rate of the children raised to 20. As a result, this policy was almost ineffective after it was performed.

But the un – predicted consequences did not lead to the political defeat of the multitude. The Romanian people are among the poor countries of the European countries who had very small houses and were not able to afford a live. Taking care of a child was not possible for some families and most of the big families were forced to live in small apartments which were very busy. It was very difficult to find a job and the incomes were not so high. Many people were not able to support their children and they usually used to give their children to the orphan centers. The policy of the Romanian government could not prevent the Romanian people who wanted to control the birth rate rather it led to the hatred of the people of the interfering policies of the government. In 1989 when the Berlin Wall collapsed and the authoritarian regime of the Western Europe was decapitated Romania was a country in which the velvet revolution was not welcome. The hateful Chaoshevsky and his wife were killed by the fire squads and their bloody bodies were let alone in the yard of the palace of the Prime Minister while the scenes were broadcasting in the TV. The law that decreed abortion illegal was the first law that was annulled by the new government. The low rate of the birth decreased more. IN the mid 1990 the population of Romania decreased due to the lower amount of births with comparison to the number of the deaths.
The Romanian children were the greatest victims of the policies for increasing the populations. During the years in which the increasing population policy was executing thousands of people were under the care of the nurturing centers. Without paying attention to the basic needs of these children (and not the love to which all of us need and we deserve it), they are kept in cages like those of the animals. Food was so scarce that blood infusion as food complement was something natural. Since the syringes were used repeatedly AIDS became prevalent quickly. The side effects of the defeated policy for increasing the population of the people were so prevalent that the healthcare and the welfare condition of the nation continued for some generations.

Now it is time to bring an example from the Tesmbagaha Cult that has been mentioned in a book by “The Theory of Performance”? written by Shekhner and we hereby compare them with the previous example:
The ceremony of Kaikoi from the Tesmbaga people who are settled in the mountainous area of the Papua New Guinea reaches its apex in a one year festival in Konj Kaiko . . . . . . . . . . . In 1962 – 1963 the Tesmbaga area was seeing the presence of 13 local groups in fifteen times without considering the last performance or the Konj Kaiko . . . . . . To make sure about the position of Kaiko the youths of Tesmbaga were sent to the nearby areas to announce the beginning of the plays and to bring news about the whys of the late coming of the participant groups. In such situations the execution of the plays was postponed. In one day of the Kaiko the dancers who were just men were used to take baths. Then they used to dedicate hours to cladding and make up of their bodies as well as their faces. In Kaiko it was really difficult, precise and delicate task to make up. When the dancers became ready they used to gather together in flat and bitten ground so as to dance for the personal pleasure and for the rehearsal before the real performance in front of the guests. The guests used to announce their presences through singing sounds and it was possible to hear their songs before they are seen in person. . . . . . .Until this time the people from the nearby cities including men and women as well as children have already gathered. These people have come to see and exchange goods. In the end the local dancers used to sit on a dominant position right over the dancing area in the back . . . . . . . . the guests were coming closer to the doors of the city, while there were lines of people who were carrying with them war boxes and were turning their axes in the air . . . . . .. . they used to enter with a special parade specialized for a special war and then with dancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This performance changed the techniques of war to entertainment. All the performances and the main voices have been taken from the war directly or indirectly. . . . . . . All the present people had a clear understanding of that . . . . . . The ceremony stopped before the dusk. The food that has been prepared in the center of the area was distributed and served . . . . . . Then the ceremony continued until the dawn. At the dawn there are changes in to a market. . . . . . . The entertaining programs of the Kaiko are a religious ceremony. . . . . These programs do not mean doing anything rather they are presentations of actions. In addition this playfulness is both real and symbolic. This entertainment is a place for the formation of the market. . . . . . . . . . . .
It is very clear here that the Tesmbaga have combined the stable system of this ceremony with the economics system and in this way a new system which is a homeostatic system which has mechanism and motion which has arrived in the beginning of the performance of the dance and in the end this give and take of goods reaches a dynamic system. . . . . . . According to what Shekhner has said about this give and take of goods it is sometimes that currency has become common. This means that the elements of this system are changeable. While if the focus is on juts the religious ceremonies there never happens such mutual interaction in any way. . . . . . . .
If we compare this example with the ninth and tenth days of Moharram and holding of the mourning sessions of the Iranian people all over the country we will understand many similarities that are extant among these two. Here also food is distributed and exchanges of materials are done by the people and they sing songs and the participation of all people in the ceremonies in which people strike on their chests; all these show that they have achieved a dynamic system. Therefore the religious mourning ceremonies have become systematized and internalized among the people of the country so as it motivate people to their lives and here every kind of centralization is negated.
Focusing on the events is one of the reasons for the resistance against the policies. Event oriented worldview leads to the event – oriented approach in solving the problems. The following diagram shows the ways that the human beings try to solve the problems in most of the cases.
The human beings investigate the situation and compare it with the goals. The distance between the ideal condition and the human understanding of the present condition defines his subject. For example suppose that the return of the artists to your organization in the last season includes a lower rate of your interaction but the organization for which you work is seeking a higher level of deals. Thereafter you would consider other possibilities for the solving of the problems. It is possible that you decrease the limit of your subjects so as demand increases and the ratio of different people’s return with different ideas increase, It is better to replace the vice chancellor of the general affairs with a more active person or it is better to do something else. You’d choose the best choice that you thing is the best and then you will perform it and this will lead to better results ( or at least you think it would turn out to have the best results) . It is possible to face with the increase in the number of the returns. Then the problem is solved.
The system shows reaction against what you do. When your returns increase the competitors decrease their limitations and then the number of the return decrease again. The solution of the yesterday turns out to be today’s problems. We are not like the master of the animation who might have effects on the outside system. We are located with in the system. There are still consequences: The results of what we have done determine the situations with which we will face in the future. The new condition changes our understanding of the issue and the present condition and it affects our tomorrow decisions.

Resistance is created against the policies because most of us do not understand the consequential effects in the system in it over all forms. But our actions change the situation of the system and the other shows reactions so that the imbalanced balance comes back again. It is possible in this case that our actions create effects.
Most of the time, we speak about the “side effects”? as though they are the determinants of the reality. But this is not the case. In the real world there are no side effects rather there are only influences and when we do something different effects are created. They are the effects about which we have never thought in advance or even they might be useful; we call them the basic effects or the intended effects. But the effects that we have never predicted; they are the effects that are intended and came in to being so that they null our policies and the effects that caused damages to the system we claim that they are called side effects. The side - effects are not a sign of the reality rather they are signs that imply our limited and incomplete understanding of the system.
The un – predicted side – effects are created because most of the time we act in a way that the cause and effect are always attached from the point of view of time and place. It is while in the complicated systems such as the city centers, business affairs of the society and the eco – systems there are great distances between time and space as well as the cause and effects. In other words the signs of the illness of the systems and the cause and effects of these illness are not close to each other from the time and place points of view. By signs we mean elements that show difficulties and problems in the system, such as addiction to a drug, un – employment, hunger of the children, decrease of order and increase of the advantages.
Aikoff has another example: The results of a published research in America (related to the 1976) showed that heroin is presented in fewer amounts the number of the crimes increases. When the amounts of heroin decrease it is possible that you become a victim of a robbery or pick pocket by an addict. Most of the people think if fighting with heroin increases the streets are becoming more immune but research showed that if a unit of heroin increases in a month the revenue rising crimes that used to be 11000 cases in a month increase to 12000 with in the same period of time. If fighting with the burglars increase with a short period of time the amount of heroin that is presented decreases and this leads to increase in the price of heroin and consequently it leads to increase the needs of the addicts for more money and this also entails increase in the number of the crimes.

Fourth Part: Interferences
The first interfering element in discussing the theater of resistance and of course the real point of view of the article is ritual. Here I am going to refer to some definitions presented by Dr. Hassan Khojasteh:

The term ritual has been used in many contexts and with many uses. Some of the definitions are mentioned here:
(Lolb and Gold, 1376) by ritual we mean some aspects of the official behavior that has no direct technological consequences. Normally such an authorization is given by a ritual tradition. But sometimes it is the outcome of the personal and automatic reactions. That means that most of the religious and magical deeds are ritual deeds. But the uses of the word ritual are not limited to the religion and magicians. The religious deeds express some situational things and in this way they are symbolic but they do not necessarily follow a special goal that means that the person who specifies a special ritual does not necessarily have something in his mind.
The word ritual in the beginning came to mean customs and traditions but later on it was used in the special meaning of religious or magical meanings. Therefore the term ritual is a reference to the religious methodological behaviors with which every kind of belief corpus can be accompanied but it is different from all of them. Some of the religious writers think that ritual is the same as liturgy, general authorized forms of prayers. Therefore they are different from the other terms such as ceremony. Therefore in the encyclopedia of social sciences ritual is the “authorized formal behavior in situations that is not just related to technology.”? But the ceremonies are set of behaviors . . . . . . . that show the real importance of a situation.”? . . . . . The scientific applications of these definitions are hardly separated; some writers’ say that the ritual is not only a custom but also it follows a special aim. From this point of view, ritual like the methods of behavior, is a formal aspect of behavior that is truly understood but in contrast it also indicates that it has some effects on the belief about the actions and influences of the natural and superiors elements. . . . . . . . .

In some similar ways does Lidge criticizes the points of view of Durkim regarding the valuable deeds and rites as well as world technological acts; almost all the acts that happen on the basis of the tradition has its symbolic aspects thatr it van be said that it reveals something about the social stance of those who held that ceremony. It is this same symbolic daily deeds that Lidge call ritual. In the ideas of the ethnographical humanists as well as Christian scientists ritual is that social custom that is authorized based on the tradition but some psychological writers use the term in other areas of meaning and they say ritual means delicate ad meticulous work that is made automatically and out of the blue – for example the psychosis. In another definition ritual is basically the presentation of a deed and as a dramatic work it reveals this fact that the participants in the ritual are involved in an activity through which form them. During the performance of the rituals the subject and the object become one and the performers are revolutionized through ritual deeds and this profession continues. Rituals are official behavior that has time orders and from this point of view it is different from the daily works. It can be said that the characteristics of the rituals is that they act like a framework; rituals is a conscious borderline that is performed at will. During the performance of the rituals some part of the human behavior or actions as well as some aspects of the human life or a time span are chosen and they are subjected to careful scrutiny. The rituals can be religious or non – religious as well as anti – religious. . . . . . . In fact the rituals are the same content that can be anything. The word ritual has been defined in close connection with the religious activity; from this point f view it can be said that rituals, in an extensive definition, is an activity that can cause the transmission of the human being from transient and fatal world to the everlasting world in which life is in a perpetual change and it changes everyday. Most of the changes that r
ituals cause are extra – symbolic issues. Rituals find their way to the daily life of the human beings as well and cause them to look at the world in a different way and act in it. Ritual . . . . . . change the experiences principles on which people based their lives.

Kinds of Rituals:
The rituals and the cults are divided into to general categories:
1 . Religious rituals
2 . non – religious rituals and cults

Religious rituals are themselves divided into two groups:

1 . Religious rituals and cults that are necessary to be done: There is clear and obvious statements regarding the ways that these rituals have to be performed and even the time and place characteristics of them has been specified, sometimes singularly and sometime in plural forms. For example we can refer to the Hajj rituals for which everything including the acts and deeds as well as time and place has been specified clearly.

2 . Non – Obligatory Cults and Rituals: These rituals come in to being based on the religious clear statements as well as with regard to the religious beliefs.

Different Non – Religious Rituals and Cults:
1 . Official or Governmental Cults and Rituals: include different ceremonies and anniversaries as well as annual conferences that the governments hold. The characteristic of these cults and rituals is that the governments and official and organizational organizations that they have to do. If the government and organization has enough facilities and appropriate management these occasions happen in an extensive dimension and possibly appropriate dimension. Otherwise the dimension of its execution will decrease in its quantity as well as quality.
2 . Tribal and Local as well as Territorial cults and Rituals: They are held by the leaders of the tribes and clans as well as local and territorial authorities.

3 . The ceremonies and the occasions that are held annually: Benevolent ceremony that is held every year by the Helping Committee of Imam Khomeini ( R . T . A . ) (Komite Emdad Imam Khomeini ( R . T . A . ) ) with the help of I . R . I . B . as well as other benevolent organizations and associations are regarded as a kind of these cults. These ceremonies have become general step by step but the persistence of them is based on the continual presence of these institutes because if these organization and institutes do not spend money and property on them then such ceremonies are not held at all. . . . . . . . . .

4. The Cults and Rituals that a tribe or groups of people perform during special periods of time: Harvest Ceremony, New Day ( No Rooz ) and the Red Wednesday ( Char Shnbe Soori ) are example of these Cults and Rituals whose stability and survival is great and their destruction might happen due to some very special reasons. Although some of these Cults and Rituals have lost their applicability but they are still seen in the society with some little changes such as the Red Wednesday ( Char Shnbe Soori ); the first three kind of Cults and Rituals have become general and stable but still they cannot create the causes of cooperation and coordination because the relationship between people and they are transient and unstable; those who hold them and are the go – between among them are mainly from official organizations. Official or national as well as other Cults and Rituals are just measures that create some ties between personal goals and communal goals but this tie naturally occurs in the Cults and Rituals. Official go – between as well as governmental organizations and institutes prevent the establishment of this natural bond and since they have important roles the existence of any weakness and lack of attention to them makes the performance of Cults and Rituals face with problems and even there is the possibility of their destruction.
Iranians have always been among those who have encouraged the happiness, ceremonies as well as the prayers of the purities. In studying the tradition and the customs of the Iranians we will understand that many different ceremonies had been held among which only two have survived. The extremity of the ceremonies was because of remembering the important events of the spiritual life and religious beliefs and they were at the same time a possibility and an opportunity for the intimacy and closeness of the human beings together in order to stand against the difficulties and the evil forces. . . . . . . . . . . . .

The fifth part: Explanation:
The artist has always supervised the human behavior and the religious production of the people. Then he has tried, as a supporter of the human production, to save and keep them. With a look at the mourning procession one can see the above claims.

For example in theatrical policies, the mourning groups are brought from their original places to the virtual spaces so as the play is presented some where else. In an organized way, as a result of this act, a dynamic system has changed to a stable system. On the other hand the artist was amazed by the events that took place by the people themselves without the participation of the artists and the artists defined them only and lined them in his own stories. They have no roles in the production of the means and equipments as well as the paths for its procession. Remember the time the mourning participants used to wear wrist watches, sun glasses as well as Jeans and they have created some changes in the definition of the artists with regard to this play none of which was practical but they become. Certainly with regard to organizing the theater of resistance, based on the manifesto of the Fourth Commission of Research and Criticism on the Theater of Resistance, the most important issues of the human sciences and the inclusion of all the events that took place in the Iranian struggles are to be included. That this the combination of these two issues to reach an independent organization for the theater of resistance is of vital importance.
Basically it is possible to look at the theater of resistance in two ways: The texts that have been written on the revitalization of the moments of the war one after the other and the texts that have dealt with the damages and the issues of the after war period. Both of these texts are making use of the dramatic structures of the western structures and they tend to create a thoughtful scene for the audience to think about. . . . . . . . . from this point of view all these texts have the capability of being presented to different seminars and ceremonies. We know that every episteme needs its own special means and facilities and on the other hand if we inject the required means and needs to the organized structure of the theater of resistance we have made them equal to those theaters. . . . . . .
On this basis we will return to this case and it is if it is necessary to separate the theater of resistance from other common theaters from the perspective of its organization. In its competition with the other theaters the least disadvantage that it might have is to make it appropriate for special rituals and in this way it will head toward becoming a stable theater. As it was mentioned before if an episteme is performed and fulfilled correctly based on its own procedures it will not endanger any other episteme. . . . . . . In order to reach a special position that is thought by the artists we have created some types of resistance against the adopted policies in the organized way and in this way the we will have less background and we can not considerate to be a side effect of the system itself. A system does not have side effects. On the other hand we can not complain about lack of dramatic texts because for the dramatists, the system of writing dramatic texts, does not tolerate finding topics rather it is finding an effective way of presenting a subject through his own imagination. If we look at imagination from an Islamic perspective it is a drop from the oceans of God’s mercy that is available in all human beings and on the basis of Allameh Mohammad Taghi Jafari it is basin in which a rive is moving. Its affects are always on the earth, even if the movement of the water lessens. The water of this river is its life and the life is for the human beings; it is in the control of God that is well aware of the abilities of all human beings.
It is sometimes possible to remind the human beings of their natural abilities. In the field of the theater of resistance one of these resources is thousands of war histories in our country. The cult is like mourning; but mourning passed a long way for popularization and nowadays it preserves many of the Iranian characteristics; look at this example: the year 1387 was a touristy year for the areas that were war – ridden and many people went to the south and south western part of the country. The homo static system of the people in this areas have presented rituals ( such as the way the live, such as cloth, what they eat, sweet and cakes as well as customs and traditions they have) to the tourists that are justifiable in their economical systems. Now the focus of this article is on planning rituals that include all the rightful Iranian wars which can replace a state – maintaining system ( that is a system which does not choose a goal and a method to reach its goals rather they are institutionalized in the system in advance and this system shows reactions only against the changes (such as economical system ) and finally what this system does is it is based on the behavior and the structure of the event) ) with a system that is a Goal seeking system; it does not choose its goal and the aim of this system is to reach a special case and it is able to behave in a special way and if it has memory it can show its effectiveness during the time; it can even set increasing its efficiency as its goal. Such as what Shahid Morteza Avini did many years ago while he was reporting from the war ridden areas or what Shahram No Shir and his family did when they played in the plays about the war ridden areas. . . . . .
Sharam No Shir, along with his wife and boy, was a fighter as well as an artist from Mazandaran who in the last years of 1370s turned around in all the war ridden areas while they were carrying some pieces of bone that were the symbol of the martyrs of the 1359. ) . . . . . .
These two cases are examples of the existing potential in the theater of resistance towards a religious and ritual position and toward becoming a dynamic system that has the ability to face its audience who are not intentional; they have taken part in watching the play so as they have some interactions with these two rituals. It is necessary for us to know that these two types of rituals refer back to the definition of the rituals and non – religious ceremonies that the governments and / or the organizations as well as the people created them, such as the benevolence ceremony. . . . . .
Now why don’t we say that it is possible to make use of the purposeful systems? Because in these systems reaching goals and aims is a very long process and it is possible that they are ruined and destroyed before they reach their goals and aims due to the created backgrounds and lack of opportunity to calculate and control these backgrounds. Purposeful system chooses its own goals and its own way of reaching goals and aims. Human beings are the most important kinds of these types of systems. The human being reached this system through his own life and through dedicating time and energy as well as seeking different goals. The behavior of a purposeful being is not at all determined from without at least some of its behavior is the result of its own decision making. A purposeful system even under some conditions resulted from them are the results of its own decision making. The benevolence ceremony (the participation of the Helping Committee of Imam Khomeini ( R . T . A . ) (Komite Emdad Imam Khomeini ( R . T . A . ) ) with the help of I . R . I . B . ) was at fist goal seeking and then after investigating the backgrounds as well as controlling them and passing through controlling system. . . . . (controlled by these two organizations) changed in to a controlling system that was controlled by the people and then it became purposeful. Now after determining the path and providing the processes as well as necessary organizations along with gaining necessary knowledge the purposeful system depends to a great extent to the environment. It is here that the means and the equipments of the system forms and even after reaching them it is possible to change this system to an ideal – seeking system through the controlling and controlled systems; it is a system that seeks ideal instead of goal. . . . . . . .
In this case the episteme is not a laboratory issue and concrete rather this system which is based on knowledge is formed through the pass of time and in the general arena step by step and after time passes. Therefore the system that comes into being on the basis of knowledge and artistic process of the communal art that is immeasurable as well as on the basis of the imagination in the text and performance of its players – and not on the basis of the western structures as well as the scene , rather on the basis of an annual ritual and thereby create a special dynamic inequality among the people and the artists such as the relationship between the dancers of Tsembaga and the people and to their interaction with one another. This includes dynamic systems of artistic behavior and homeostatic systems and with the planning of an organized system. In the path of creating responsive systems among all kinds of systems with its responses in creating reactions and in the happening of the possible events help the system in stability of the theater of resistance.
Shkhner in a subject entitled the transfomances says about the created inequalities in the Kaiku ceremony of the people from Tsembaga that: In the beginning the people are creditors and the dancers are the debtors but in the end and through the division of food the people become debtors and the dancers become creditors and it is this created inequaity that cause the people to unite and it is always kept alive because they believe that those who are coming to our Kaikos are those who come to our wars. . . . . .
Now we are referring to the Ashura afternoon in Gortan in south of Iran to see how mourning procession has combined with the Ashura mourning and it has popularized it more than ever. It is clear that the principle issue in the Ashura mourning is to keep the memories of the events of Karbala and to show their loyalty to Imam Hussein (A . S. ) and His holiness Abu – Al – Faz ( A . S. ) as well as the martyrs of Karbala and the unity of the people of the village. The people from Goortan, based on their traditions and customs that is affected by their deep respect and value for the sadat and scientists as well as religious men mourn and pray as well as beat themselves by chain. . . . . .
The mourning processions and the ceremonies that are held in Gortan has created a sense of unity and cooperation among the people of the village in addition to showing their deep respect for the chief of the martyrs and his comrades and colleagues and one of the reasons that they have established this procession is that they were interested in this issue.


Systematization of any group through knowledge and based on the organized program will end in the helpful formation of the pavement for the creation of the appropriate processes in accordance with the means and devices as well as organized knowledge that deal with that system. This system gives its relative organization very scientific and predictable powers. . . . . .
The theater of resistance through scientific investigation of the ritual and cults of Iran and combining it with the war and struggle subjects, especially the eight years of the holy defense war can reach different systems that increase the participation of the people. Then through achieving the sense of certainty of the people more than ever and through passing the cults and rituals to them can reach its natural and inherent episteme and after passing of the time it can investigate all the aspects and thereby it can preserve its characteristics as a system. . . . . . .
It is through these kinds of interaction that the cults and the rituals have remained among the people and they have regarded them valuable. The theater of resistance of Iran can make use of the various rituals of the country and thereby can reach systems and organizations that is alive and dynamic which can keep and preserve all the rightful wars and struggles of the people; it is necessary for it to represent and show the brevity and the daring deeds of the people in preserving and keeping their borders not just symbolically rather to create unity and preserve it among them.
In Lucien Goldman (P . 370 ) an important issue . . . . . . . . is to pass from individual and un – organized researched and reach a more scientific and communal research; thus if this article is communed with the other researchers and scientists and approved by them it has reached it s original and basic system that it sought. . . . . .

Writer: Mahmoud Reza Rahimi
Source: Book "Lost notes" to try and change "Mohsen Babaee Rabii," and by the Revolution and Sacred Defense Theater Association and published
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