News ID: 282669
Publish Date: 12 December 2010 - 10:46
The attack of the German Army on Russia took place in June 1941 and during a few days the Nazi soldiers sieged the defending armies and took tens of thousands of captives. In December of the same years, General Jokov took the army forces under his biting but the break down of the back bones of the Nazi Army took place in Stalingrad – St. Petersburg. In this front line the Russian soldiers passed the river Den and in spite of the attacks on the past of the German Tanks under the commandership of Field Marshal Munstein and led the sixth Hitler’s army in to blockade and they made them surrender on the last days of the January 1943.
The attack of the German Army on Russia took place in June 1941 and during a few days the Nazi soldiers sieged the defending armies and took tens of thousands of captives. In December of the same years, General Jokov took the army forces under his biting but the break down of the back bones of the Nazi Army took place in Stalingrad – St. Petersburg. In this front line the Russian soldiers passed the river Den and in spite of the attacks on the past of the German Tanks under the commandership of Field Marshal Munstein and led the sixth Hitler’s army in to blockade and they made them surrender on the last days of the January 1943.
The attack of Iraq on Iran by the use of 45 organized battalions in the forms of infantry, mechanized as well as armed – plated forces took place on September 22nd 1980 (Shahrivar 31st 1359). The Iranian armies were not completely ready but they stood against the transgressors completely. But they were not successful although they did their best but they lost the control Khorramshahr although they resisted heroically; finally Khorramshahr went under the Ba’si regime’s control.
At 3 a.m. on April 30th 1982, the first stage of the operation called Beit Al – Moghaddas started and on May 24th 1982 it led to the freedom of Khorramshahr. In this epical operation the brave Iranian soldiers did a miraculous action and they passed the flowing river of Karuon and they knock out the enemy.
In the present essay in addition to investigating the common characteristics of the two mentioned wars we will look at some plays and drams that have been produced on the fall and freedom of Khorramshahr and we will try to have some suggestions for the better – being of these works.
I .

Stalingrad War; Victorious Resistance:
At 3 : 30 a. m. on Sunday June 22nd 1941 exactly at the same day 129 years before when Napoleon passed Rood Nieh Mann to occupy Moscow; exactly a year before Napoleon sign the defeat and surrender treaty in the Campaign Jungle – near Paris – the German cannon balls were thundering in a front with the length of 1000 miles. And the equipped and mechanized armed forces of Adolph Hitler passed Nieh Mann and other rivers and broke the Russian borders and moved in very quickly. . . . . . . .
This was the army that was invincible.
Halder, who was always a gingerly and considerate man, writes in his memory: “. . . . . .It can be said that the quick and rapid war in Russia is ended in 14 days.”? He added: “until a few weeks later every thing will end.”?.
But it has not yet ended.
In the morning of December 6th 1941 General George Jokov, who replaced Marshal Timo Shenkov, as the leader of central front lines; he took the Nazi army under his attacks. . . . . . .
In front of Moscow, in a frontline with the length of 200 mile, Jukov brought seven armies and 2 yeomanry – in general composed of 100 armies. This forces was composed of fresh and experienced forces who have been equipped and ready to fight in the snowy and very cold weather.
The stroke this rather unknown Russian general issued on the Nazis by the use of strong infantry forces as well as the tanks and the yeomanry forces as well as the jets was so crashing and destructive that the German and Riche III armies would never able to stand upright again and this was the force that Adolph Hitler had no information about.
In the remaining days of that biter and cold winter and in the beginning of January 1942 it seemed for many weeks that the defeated armies of the Germans – who were withdrawing while the Russian soldiers were following them – was about to be annihilated and destroyed completely among the snows; as it was befallen on the “Great army”? of Napoleon. They were also afflicted with this misfortune and tragic end. In this critical moment the German Army was going to have the same fate. It might have been because of Hitler’s will and decisiveness as well as the stability and steadfastness of the German Soldiers that the Armies of the Riche the third survived the situation and did not break down. But the defeat of the German soldiers was great. It is true. The red army was injured but it was not destroyed completely. Moscow was not occupied. Leningrad and Stalingrad and the oil canals of Caucasus were not under the control of the Germans and in the north and south of Russia, the vital roads of that country that was heading towards England and America were still open.
All over October 1942, the bloody street fights were going on in Leningrad itself. The Germans were heading house by house but it was little. But these advances were accompanied by amazing damages. Because the destruction of a big city – as those who were in the wars know – give great opportunity for a long term and sever defense and the Russians were defending very severely to their last drop of blood and they were making use of these opportunities.
Although Halder and then Saitler – who came in his stead – admonished Hitler that the German soldiers are going to become bored and wearied of the Stalingrad war but he was still emphasizing that the soldiers go ahead. Therefore, the fresh soldiers were sent to the fighting scenes and it did not take a long time that they were destroyed and devoured by the Stalingrad hell.
Instead of being a means of achieving the goal, Stalingrad became a goal itself. When the German soldiers reached the western banks of Volga located in the north and south of the city they stopped any come and go on the river and it was at that time they had reached their goals at those times the occupation of Stalingrad had become a matter of honor and dishonor for Hitler and his personal value. Even when Sight Sler dared suggesting the leader: to withdraw the sixth army from Stalingrad to the corner of the Den river because of the great threat that is there in the north part of the German forces, Hitler became very infuriated and shouted: “The German soldier remains wherever he steps in”?.
Of course Hitler was not unaware of the danger that was threatening the German forces from the Den’s banks. Finally he was informed about the sally of the Red army in the Den’s banks; the Russians had started their sally in the dusk on November 19th 1942 while they were facing snow storms. . . . . . . . . And it was after two or three hours that they informed the German Nazi world conqueror. Although they were expecting an assault on this part from the Red Army’s side but nobody in the “Sublime Commanding Headquarters”? believed that the attack would be that much extensive and vast that Hitler and his counselors, Kaitel and Udall, soon to the Eastern Prous (Hitler’s headquarter) hurriedly. . . . . . .
But . . . . . . The urgent and immediate telephone call of General Site Sler – The General Commander of the German Army who was in Rustenburg – cause unrest in Hitler and his Generals. Site Sler, . . . . . . according to what has been written down in the daily notes of the Sublime Commanding Headquarters had very distasteful and woeful news. It means that during the first hours of attack the concordant and harmonious armored clad forces of the red army, in between Srafimovic and Keltskaia located on the Den’s banks, north western part of Stalingrad had penetrated through the third army of the Romanian forces.
In the southern part of the besieged city of Stalingrad, the other strong force of Russia, attacked very furiously and forcefully on the fourth armored clad army of Germany as well as the fourth army of Romania and it was expected that they would soon become victorious in both lines of war. . . . . . . .
For everybody who looked at the map, especially for General Site Sler, the goal of the Russian army was crystal clear. The general commander of the German forces, according to the information what was given to him by the intelligence services, he knew that the enemy has equipped 13 armies and thousands of tanks in order to reach his goals in the south front.
The red armies, with all their abilities and power, were coming down from north and south in order to cut any relations between the German forces and Stalingrad; accordingly the sixth army of the Nazis that was fighting in that city was forced either to withdraw to the west or to remain besieged and . . . . . . . .
Site Sler, had later said: “As soon as I knew what was going to happen, I insisted to Hitler that the sixth army of Germany move backward to the corner of the Den River from Stalingrad, this was the place from where it was possible to mend the destroyed war front. But the leader became infuriated with my speech and shouted: “I won’t leave Volga and I won’t withdraw from Volga”?. And this ended here. This decision that was made in that insane condition led immediately and rightly to misfortune and misery. The leader himself insisted that the Sixth Army stand in Stalingrad and fight and resists to their best. It was at this time that about 20 German battalions and 2 armies of Romania were besieged. Paulo informed through wireless that the besieged soldiers need at least 750 tons of ammunition and these had to arrive in through the air. But the export this amount of ammunition was too great for the German air force to be able to transfer, because Germany did not have enough transportation planes that were necessary to transfer this amount of ammunition; even if they did have enough planes to pass through the stormy weather over the area on which the Russian forces were flying in order to handle the control of the area. Still, Goring assured Hitler that the German air force is able to manage this affair but they did not start this work ever . . . . . . . . .
Saving the Sixth German army was possible by a more scientific and brave action. On November 25th Hitler summoned “Field Marshal Van Munstein”?, one of the most talented and gifted infantry generals from the Stalingrad war and appointed him as the commander of a newly formed unity that came to be called “Den Group”?. Field Marshal Van Munstein’s mission was to open his way through the south western front and save the German Sixth army.

Hitler’s Effort to Save the German Sixth army:
But at this time, “the leader enforced the new leader of his unit, possible conditions. Munstein tried to explain to Hitler that the only way to save the German Sixth army is to pierce through the circle of the red army and come out of Stalingrad and go to the west and at this time that his forces move ahead of that fourth armored clad army and move against the Russian forces that is located between the two German forces and advance toward the north eastern part. But once more Hitler did not accept to withdraw from the Volga. He said: German Sixth army would remain in Stalingrad and Munstein has to pierce his way into the Russian forces and reach the German Sixth army there.
It was possible for Munstein to discuss with the general commander and reason for him because they knew that the Russians were very powerful. . . . . . . . .

In spite of that, Munstein started his attack on the 12th of September while he was depressed. The German Army headquarters, named this attack secretively “Winter Hurricane”? and it has to be said that this was a correct and acceptable name because at that time, Russian Winter, was biting the western parts of the country violently and was piling the snow in its way and brought the thermometer to below 0 degree of Celsius. . . . . . .
In the Beginning, Munstein’s Attack Was Successful:
The fourth armored – clad force under the commandment of General Hoot, went ahead along the two railroads of Kotel Nikofsky to the north western was arena and reached the 75 miles from Stalingrad. To the 19th of December that army reached an area that was 40 miles away from Stalingrad and on 23rd it was in 30 miles distance. . . . . . . . At nights the soldiers of the besieged German Sixth army soldiers were seeing the lighting signs that their survivors were sending to them from the other side of the snowy hills.
At this moment based on the testimonies that the German generals gave later, the out going of the German Sixth army from Stalingrad toward the front lines of the fourth armor – clad army that was advancing, was about to become successful. But once more, Hitler prevented such a work. On December 21st Site Sler asked for the leader’s permission by insistence and persistence so as the Paula’s soldiers go out of Stalingrad on this condition that they do not leave it. The general commander of the German army says: I was about to become crazy because of this foolishness.”?
Sait Sler later on said: “A night later I asked Hitler to approve of the coming out of the German Sixth army from Stalingrad. I stated that this interview would be the last chance for the surviving of the two hundred thousand soldiers of Paula’s army.
But Hitler was not satisfied. I was explaining in vain to him the conditions and the situation of the soldiers who were living in that terrible condition; I explained the disappointments and the bereavements of the hungry soldiers, the fact that the soldiers have lost their trust in the leader and the general commander, deaths and mortality of the injured soldiers due to lack of medical treatments and the fact that thousands of our soldiers are going to die because of the sever cold; I explained these one by one. But he remained indifferent and calm against all my explanation and reasoning and he was again very indifferent as he used to be against my reasoning.
At this moment general Hot was in a 30 mile distance from Stalingrad and since he was facing the increasing resistance of the Russians he was not able to move ahead this distance. He believed that if the German Sixth army was able to get out of Stalingrad he was able to join them as well and both forces would be able to move backward to Kotel Nikovsky. This, at least, was able to save two hundred thousand German soldiers from death.
May be this was possible during two or three days between 21st and 23rd December; but on December 23rd it had been made impossible because the red army without letting General Hot know has attacked his strokes on the northerner front lines and at this time the western line had endangered Den’s group. On the night of 22nd December Munstein phoned Hot to announce his readiness to follow harder orders. The next day, the orders came. Hot had to stop his efforts to reach Stalingrad; he had to send one of his armies to the north to the Den line and he had to defend himself wherever he was with whatever force that has remained for him.
The efforts of the World Conqueror to save the German Sixth army led to defeat and disappointment. . . . . . . .
Mustein’s new and tough orders were issued because on 17th December he had heard very horrible and shocking news. In the dusk on that day, in Bogochar, North of Den’s bank, one of the Russian armies had devoured the 8th army of Italy and had created a 27 mile hole into that army’s lines. Within three days, this rupture reached 90 miles. It was the Italians who were escaping in terror and fear. . . . . . . And in the south, the third Romanian army which was under severe attacks on the part of the red army on 19th December, who were about to progress, was about to perish and destroy. For this reason it was not amazing if Munstein had taken some of the armored clad army of Hot and move them to prevent further rupture in the war’s front lines. The defeat and the frustration of the Nazis continued. . . . . . . .
In the early morning of the January 10th, 24 hours after the deadline that was specified for the relinquish of the German Sixth army, the red forces started the last Stalingrad war stage through the cannon balls and the fires as well as irons that were pouring out of the 5000 cannon balls. . . . . . .
There took place a very bloody and tough war . . . . . . On the frozen ruins of the city the enemies were fighting bravely and unbelievably and continued their slaughter . . . . . . but this long fight did not indeed take a very long time.
During 6 days, the Nazi defense conditions, decreased to half i . e . to a territory that was 15 miles long and the widest part of which was 9 miles. Until 24th of the January that position was divided in to two sections and the last small airport (in which some small resources especially drugs for the ill and injured soldiers were kept) from which the planes could transfer 29 thousand soldiers was no more able to let the planes land.
The final part of the event was very easy. At the evening of the last day of January 1943, Paul sent his last message to the leader:
While the Soldiers of the German’s Sixth Army are loyal to their oaths as well as their great mission they have preserved their entrenchment for the sake of the leader as well as their country to their last breath and to their last bullet.”?
At 7 : 45 p . m . the operator of the wireless of the German’s Sixth Army reported his last message:
“The Russians are in our underground shelter. We are destroying the wireless systems and then he added GL to the end of the message.
Finally on peace and silence became dominant on the war arena that was covered by snow and blood. At 2 : 45 p . m . on February 2nd a research air plane flew over the heaven in a very high height over the city and informed the others through wireless: “There is no sign of war here in Stalingrad.”?
Until that time 91000 German soldiers – including 24 generals – half – hungry, frozen, many of them injured, all confused and amazed as well as demolished, in a weather of 24 degrees of Celsius, used to take blankets that are wet over the heads and they used to hold them severely. And were going among ice and snow staggeringly towards the sorrowful and frozen camps in which the war slaves were living. . . . . . . .
Except for the 20000 Romanian soldiers and 2900 injured soldiers that were taken out by plane from the war arena, these were the soldiers that remained from the army of a person who claimed to conquer the world. These were the remaining soldiers of the army whose number was about 285000 soldiers in the previous month. The others were injured and out of that 91000 German soldiers who passed the way to slavery in that winter day only 5000 persons saw the country.

2 .
Passing Karoon and Releasing Khorram Shahr
“At ten in the morning on fourth of Aban (October 26th) the city of Khorram Shahr went under the control of the Iraqis and its last defendants withdrew from it with a very sorrowful heart and a very tired body after 34 days of brave resistance. They reached the east of Karoon by the use of boats. On the other side of Karoon suddenly the hatred of the boys was out broken and they shouted on the bank of the river toward the city: “Khorram Shahr do you hear my voice? Khorram Shahr tell the Ba’sis that we will return and will save you.”?
All of them were crying and some of them were hitting their heads to the palm trees but at their hearts they were promising to come back and to release it from the Iraqi enemy.”?

Beit Al – Moghadas Operation and the Releasing of Khorram Shahr
“Fourty days after the victory in the Fath Al - Mobin Operation, on 30 / 3 / 1982 ( 10 / 1 / 1361 ) a session was formed in the presence of the commanders of the army and the Corps commanders with the aim of releasing Khorram Shahr and it was announced to all the battalions to reconstruct the battalions and planning for the operation within two weeks.
The goals of the operation:
1 . Destroying the organized forces of the enemy
2 . Releasing major parts of the occupied areas in the western banks of Karron river that is the area between Karoon and Karkhe rivers (exactly the area between Abadan to Ahvaz). Hoor Al – Hovaizeh and Hamid Garrison in the south of Ahvaz and the city of Khorram Shahr with goal of advancing towards Basra to Tanoomeh located on the eastern banks of Arvand Rood.
After 25 days of continuous and persistent efforts to be ready for the Beit – Al – Moghads operation and finally with the beginning of Ordibehesht 1361 (21st April 1982), the last sessions of the garrisons and units for the investigation of maneuvers were held. It was in these sessions that the responsibility of supporting the operation was given to Jihad Sazandegi.
The area for the Beit Al – Moghadas operation, from the point of view of the natural situation, as well as the prediction of building a bridge on the Karoon river, needed engineering work in a special form. In comparison with the Fath Al – Mobin that was more limited from the point of view of Fighting – engineering activity, while Beit Al – Moghadas was a more important event because of the extensiveness of the operation.
Jihad Sazandaghi that showed a lot of efforts and energy from itself had also a very extensive presence in this operation and he took the main axis of the engineering operation.
Beit – Al Moghadas Operation:
At three a. m. on April 30th 1982 ( 10 / 02 / 1361 ) during the first stage of the Beit Al –Moghadas Operation about 800 square kilometers of the lands of our country was released.
During the second part of the operation was about to be implemented at 22 : 30 on May 6th 1982 ( 16 / 02 / 1361 ) with the aim of reaching the international borders and the siege of Khorram Shahr.
The third stage started at ten o’clock on May 9th 1982 ( 19 / 02 / 1361 ). The goal of this attack was releasing Khorram Shahr. But this stage of the operation did not lead to success. But the forces after moving ahead were established in three kilometers distance from Shalamche and they stopped the operation to in order to refresh and to recuperate.
During the stage 3 and four some sessions were held among the commanders of the corpse and the army as well as Jihad Sazandegi and in some part of it the extant problems were investigated and they decided their final decisions about the future operations. One of the goals of these sessions is to compensate for the existent weaknesses of engineering, fire, armor and medicine as well as recognition.
In this way the fourth stage of the operation with the goal of the siege and release of Khorram Shahr started at 22 : 25 on Khordad 2nd 1361 (May 23rd 1982). Khorram Shahr that was crashed after 34 days resistance and its being 575 days under the foots of the Ba’asi regime’s forces was released within 48 hours and was completely freed from the dirt of the occupants.
At 2 p. m. on the May 24th 1982 ( 3 / 3 / 1361 ) the freedom of Khorram Shahr was announced to the people from voice of Iran :
“Dear Listeners! Pay attention! Khorram Shahr was released”?.
That message created such enthusiasm and excitement among the Iranians and a lot of people came to the streets in the cities and celebrated; they were distributing sweet and juice and confetti among each other.
Beit Al – Moghadas Operation’s Achievements:
During the four stages of Operation the following areas were released:
1 . The Sea Port of Khorram Shahr
2 . The City Hovaizeh
3 . Hamidieh Garrison
4 . The transportation of the important road of Ahvaz - Khorram Shahr – Karkhe – Kour ( Noor ) .
5 . Hovaizeh – Soosangerd Road
6 . Eight border garrison were occupied and used.

The Casualties of the Beit Al – Moghadas Operation:
It can be inferred from the documents and testimonies of the Ba’si regime as well as those of the Islamic Republic of Iran that the damages and casualties of the have been registered as follow in the Beit Al – Moghadas Operation:
- 16 thousands of injured and deaths
- 17 thousand and 499 slaves
- Debacle of 40 air planes
- Debacle of 3 helicopters
- The destruction of 550 tanks
- The destruction of 49 cars and tens of heavy and light cannon balls
- The destruction of battalion 8 of the army No. 3 .
- The destruction of battalion of 606 infantry and garrison no. 24 of the armored – clad battalion.
- Strong damages to the no. 426 infantry troops and troops No. 51 and 34 as well as No. 27 of the battalion group from the troop no 1 .
- The destruction of the battalion No 12 of the tank troops, battalion 6 and 12 of the army no. 2, battalions of 6 and 2 from the troop no 3, battalion no 90 from the infantry troop no. 2. as well as battalion No 10 of the tank troops of the Al – Mansoor garrison of battalion 10 of the armor clad group of the 48 infantry garrison, battalion 10 of the armor clad troop, mechanized battalion of 46, and 37 battalion of the 12th troop, mechanized group of the 9th troops, infantry group No. 288 from the 9th troops, battalion No 3 of the tank troops No 14 and heavy strokes on the troop No. 9 of the border guard, troop No. 10 of the border battalion and troop 33 of the special forces as well as the 238 troop of the border guard.
The Trophies that were gathered from the Beit Al – Moghadas Operation are listed as follow:
1. a helicopter
2. 105 tanks
3. 56 cars
4. 95 thousands bombs
5. tens of heavy and light cannon balls

The similarities of Beit Al – Moghadas Operation and Stalingrad Operation as well as their speed
1. Making use of taking aback of the enemy and quickness in the operation
2. Passing the river (amazing pass of the boys from Karoon River and that of the red army from Den)
3. The extensive withdrawal of the enemy forces (The German and the Ba’asi forces) towards the borders.
4. Traumatizing of the both sides and the German’s and Iraqi’s armies and forces’ being shocked as well as besieged through wrong tactics.
5. Continuous change of the commanders of the battalions and troops by Hitler and Saddam Hussein
6. The substitution of the attacking strategy for that of defense by the operation (Iranian and Russian) commanders.
7. Making use of extensive common forces in order to make the enemy leave the country.

3:
A Look at the Plays of the Holy Defense War Which Are Related To Khorram Shahr
Regarding the amazing operation of Beit Al – Moghadas Operation that led to the release of Khorram Shahr, so far as the writer has studied the issues carefully, no play has ever been able to represent and show the epical as well as the brave deeds that is becoming of this war. Many of the writers have referred to the fall of Khorram Shahr and the casualties of civilians in the war as well as different issues regarding the homeless people and their feelings of loneliness and homesick in their writings. But they have been ignorant of the issue that they should have created epical and interesting works. In this regard it is possible to make use of the Russian war literature that reflects their feelings of resistance as well as persistence against the Nazi occupants. For example, a writer named Youri Bondarov has written a work named the “Hot Snow”? that has turned in to film as well and it has the capability of changing in to drama. In this exciting and enthusiastic work we are dealing with the common people who, in the Stalingrad war, when the tanks of Munstein are trying to pierce through the siege lines of German soldiers and save them, they faced them with their skin and bones and thereby he creates very nice pictures of the encounter of the human beings with the tanks (i . e . iron and meat) in the hearts of snow and ice and thereby it makes the reader stay put and make him applaud the work.
The question is here, whether there are few cases in the scenes of the holy defense war and especially at the time of the occupation of Khorram Shahr and its release. We wonder if there is no possibility of substituting the unbearable hot weather for the horrible cold of Russia. Why aren’t there such plays with such characteristics?
Here, we will refer to two examples of the epical and dramatic scenes of Beit Al – Moghadas Operation that can be made use of by the young playwrights:

The first Case:
“. . . . . . At that stage, Khorram Shahr was every thing for us. If we could not release it there was no use in conducting the operations. Even occupying the Iraqi areas would not alleviate us.
Four days after Fath Al – Mobin operation, Ahmad started his job. Have you seen Karoon?
- Yes, It is a very full water rood.
- And what is more important is that it is very clamorous. With the facilities that we had at those times. The enemy did not think that we were intended to pass through Karoon. This was similar to a real self – extinction. It seemed in case of passing through the river all of us would be killed. But at midnight when the enemy was sleeping and did not think that we would pass through Karoon, Ahmad passed his troops through the river and reached the strategic road of Ahvaz – Khorram Shahr road with in 20 kilometers away from the enemy forces.
The Iraqi forces were beside the Karoon Banks and were looking at their fronts; while the face to face war started behind the lines. This is while Saddam Hussein was himself in the area. The execution groups used to answer any withdrawal by bullets. Ahmad himself and most of its forces would be injured but they did not withdraw although their energies were about to end. Finally the time came to become disappointed with the goal of releasing Khorram Shahr. The resistance and the ability of the enemy were unbelievable. It was at this time that Ahmad and Husein Kharrazi made a very important decision: suicidal attacks. They collected all their forces and said to them that they are intended to attack the enemy for the last time and with regard to the ability of the enemy it seems no body is able to survive; at those days every body thought that that was the last time that they were able to see Ahmad and Hussein but the circumvent and the outmaneuver of Ahmad once more resulted in success and among the amazement of the world he defeated the Iraqi enemy and their resistance and made them surrender group by group. Fifteen thousand forces were shaking their white underwear garments and the streets of the beautiful city of Khorram Shahr were full of their helmets and equipments. . . . . . . In this way once more, God is the Supreme Power was heard in Khorram Shahr . . . . . . . “

The Second Case:
“. . . . . . I do not know how much Hajj Ahmad Kazemi used to think on his plans and if he planned them in advance or not. But the important point was that his plans used to end in good results. Every body knew that at the time of the operation an important principle is the principle of secrecy. But Hajj Ahmad used not to abide by this principle and wanted to show off the number of his forces.
In Beit Al - Moghaddas OperationI was the commander of a battalion. It was the second stage of the operation. At night on the Ahvaz – Khorram Shahr road we were moving and all at once an order came from Hajj Ahmad.
Tell the armor – clad forces to lit all the lamps of their tanks.
I thought I have made a mistake. But we tried to make use of the darkness at night in order to be invisible; this was while Hajj Ahmad ordered to lit the lights on.
In order to be sure I asked: “I did nit get what you said Hajj Ahmad. What shall we do?”?
He repeated: “Lit all the lights of the tanks on; all the projectors as well as what ever you have”?.
What for? All our position will be divulged.
You do as you are ordered. Do not be worried. . . . . .
. . . . . Hajj did not abide by the laws of the play. I ordered the tanks operators to lit the lamps and move ahead at their full speed. This has created an amazing effect. On one hand the enemy was frightened and on the other hand the infantry forces became so powerful that it was made impossible to prevent them from advancing.
And it was in this way that we reached the back of the first castle. The other castle was one and half or two kilometers away from us and the enemy was hidden behind it. It was about the fall of the night and the weather was soon becoming light. Naturally we had to take the position behind the castle and take rest there and continue the operation the next night. But Hajj Ahmad Knew that the attack of the tanks with their lit lights on and their reaching to the first castle has weakened the spirit of the enemy’s soldiers and he was thinking not to give any chance to the enemy for recuperation and therefore he ordered martyr Salehi, who was the commander of one of the other battalions, to advance and occupy the next castle.
Before they might be able to recuperate we have to occupy the castle otherwise they would pour such fire that we would not be able to resist. Now their organizations have collapsed and we should not give them any chance for re – organization.
“. . . . . . There were many soldiers killed and injured and we were really in a bad condition. Finally the other troops came as well and we finally were able to stabilize our positions. Then the third stage of Beit Al – Mogadas Operation started. We were 5 Kilometers away from Khoram Shahr. Here, Hajj Ahmad used a very strange tactic; a tactic through which we were able to get good results. I remember it was exactly 6 p . m . Suddenly, Hajj Ahmad ordered all the five battalions to:
Pour all their sunlit over City of Khorram Shahr.
We did not know what Hajj Ahmad meant by this work. We made everything ready and threw all the sunlit we had over the city of Khoram Shahr. The city became illuminated. It was a very strange fire work. We were seeing the enemy forces from afar moving this and that way. They were really shocked. They thought that the operation in which all these sunlit are used must be a very extensive operation. It was clear that they were horrified.
Once more Hajj Ahmad’s tactic was successful and at least 150% of those forces lost their spirits. In a way that all the enemy forces started to surrender and it was at this time that the real attack started.

And when the main attack started we faced very little resistance. Hajj Ahmad himself was the first man who entered the city with a tank and then his forces conquered Khorram Shahr. Hajji went through the streets of the city and he was thinking and we did not know about what he was thinking. He was looking at heavens and towards the west. Then he went to the main mosque from where, God is the supreme power, was heard from every where. He stood for a while and looked at the minarets. His eyes were full of tears he told the tank to turn and then he called me.
Take your forces out of the city soon.
I was startled. We had conquered the city by a lot of efforts and now he was ordering to evacuate the city.
- For What Reason Hajji?
While he was about to start to move he said: “it is not a good time to ask why. I will tell the other battalions to move out of the city as soon as possible.”?
I was shocked But I knew his work is not without reason. We started to move out of the city. Hajji himself was the last to move out of the city. And it was at this time the extensive bombardment of the enemy started. . . . . .
The enemy’s planes were coming and were pouring whatever bombs they had over the city; they did not know we were out of the city at that time. If we were in the city of Khorram Shahr the casualties would have become greater and greater; it would have become worse as we did not have enough air support. Hajji knew what the Iraqis were intended to do. We waited so much as the bombardment ended and then we returned to the city and again Hajji was the first to enter the city of Khorram Shahr . . . . . .”?.
Now according to the ideas of the writer of this article we have to conduct a very extensive and vast research and what is much better is to make use of the experiences of the other countries such as Russia, Vietnam as well as Palestine and . . . . . That research would certainly open up the way for the creation of everlasting and great works. Now without considering the stated point of view we will have a look at the plays that are published so far. . . . . .
Baddrieh: Rashid , Rashid , Get up; the man has gone. Do not play for us. Hey Rashid Rashid! Get up. Now that you saw a stranger your games started?
Rashid! Get up and let’s move out of this hell. You used to repeatedly say that they will burn us alive, you used to say they will create holes in us and they will destroy us. You lasted day by day. You said that you have stopped them in the graveyard and that you will open Mah Shahr Road, that you will finish the war in three days. The helping and extra forces are on their way; where are they? Hey? They occupied Khorram Shahr and they killed their youths now it is time for Abadan. Now there is no way either to go ahead or to go backward. . . . . . .”?
Somewhere else we hear from Rahman:
Rahman: Many of the boys were martyred, many of them are injured as well; there is no body in Khorram Shahr to stand against the Iraqi forces.
In addition there is a narrator who narrates a scene from the war by a southern language:
Abas: Abbas take care of me (he has taken out his cloth and he is turning it around); there was a garrison moving but where to? It was for the sake of our honor, Abadan. There was a tank among them. There were five people on one side and there were five more on the other side. They lowered their waists, while they were holding their guns tightly. They were going abreast and they were moving in that way. There were a lot of fire work on the other side, from the Iraqi side; the heavens and the earth were ablaze. There is no one except for uncle and Hasson. . . . . .
The play is biter but in any way it reflects the spirit of self – abnegation and resistance. This is the only play that deals with the war itself from the point of view of war.
In a play called “Tell the Sun”? by Saeed Tashakori which also the name of a five volume set theatrical work, the narrator is a sleepy narrator. Captain Yagoob who has lost his wife, Halimeh, and his boy, Jonas, in the war and secluded superficially because of old age and internally due to fear is awakened by the spirit of his child and of course through the help of Job – Jonas’ father – and moves toward the war front and achieve the highest degree of martyrdom along with Job. . . . . .
Yagoob: I do not understand. Speak like my Jonas.
Jonas: I was dreaming that I was dead. I was dreaming and in my dream I was hearing the noise of the siren and that there was a star on the forehead of my Sun (my wife). She was like the moon in its fullest form. (It refers to the old story. In that story the moon is seen to be on the forehead of the innocent girl.)
Yagoob: What about me Jonas? Did you see me in your dreams?
Jonas: Do you breathe?
Yagoob: these are my hands, these are my feet and this is my head as well as this is my body . . . . . . so I am alive!
Jonas: what about your heart?
Yagoob: It beats! For you . . . . . for Halimeh . . . . . for the Sun (his wife) . . . . . for here . . . .
Jonas: for yourself too?
Yagoob: for my self?
Jonas: yea, for you too.
Yagoob: for my self? What are you saying Jonas?
Jonas: make an oath?
Yagoob: On what? . . .
Jonas: On that shelf whose torch was showing my wife to me. Make an oath on the name that you put on me. On saied Abbas . . . . .
I mean swearing by the light, his holiness Jonas and Saied Abbas Abadani who was a man of insight and was able, according to what people say, to move on water and helped the soldiers. The interesting point in this play is that Jonas is speaking to his father from the heart of the sea and it is at that same place that he hugs his child and then he become identified with His Holiness Jonas.
Yagoob: you say that in that way and then you take the follow of your path . . . . . where are you going?
Jonas: [ from a far place ] I was summoned to a very good place . . . .
Yagoob: I am your father . . . . .
Jonas: I am giving you the light. The water has risen and makes sure that captain! The moon has risen (it is a metaphor for waking up ).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job: I have to go.
Yagoob: Take me with yourself.
Job: Where?
Yagoob: take me too.
Job: [ happily ] everybody! Come and see that Job wants to move in to the sea. . . . . . . .
Yagoob: I ma not sure if they will let this old man. [loud] Halimeh! The captain wants to go to the sea . . . . . . [P . P . 73 – 75 ] .
In this way Captain Yagoob attaches himself in an allegorical way to the sea as a sign of creativity and God’s benevolence.
In a part of this play there is a reference to the city of Khorram Shahr that seems to be destroyed.
Yagoob: It was as if it was yesterday . . . . . .It was Jonas . . . . . . It was Halimeh . . . . . .
Job: I do not know if it was yesterday or today that Khorram Shahr was under the attacks of the air raids by Mig and Toplov planes. It was yesterday that Khorram Shahr and Dar Khovain as well as Shalamche faced towards the resurrection Sahara and made the main mosque their place for gathering. It was as if yesterday that the minds of the children at the 12th station of Abadan were poured over the rail.
In another place he talks about the main mosque again:
Jonas: There were a lot of equipments and devices . . . . . . . like the sharks . . . . tell my father . . . . . Maybe . . . . What Halimeh may be?
Jonas: tell to play Jofti (a southerner musical device) and to bit on the drums so as the main mosque is made full of the people . . . . . . . (P . 65 ) .
In this play everybody wants to see and in their dreams there is a view of the future.
In addition they talk about the past in a passive voice; the cities were beautiful and lively and now they have turned in to dust.
The hero of the play wants his father Yagoob to take an oath of the torch light (to take an oath of the sun) and in his name meaning in the name of Jonas that is like His Holiness Jonas who used to live in the stomach of a shark. Here we are dealing with the tradition of praying light and the sun; it was the same tradition in which the people with the lighting of lights send their prayers for his holiness Mohammad and Pray God as well. He asks his father to be daring enough to dive in to the sea; here we are dealing with the mystic concept of the heart and the secretive meaning if the sea that is the source of life; it is here that Yagoob wakes up and understands everything.
Everyone is martyred and only the bride and Yagoob as well as his grandson remain who is most possibly the follower of the way of his father.
The holiness of place – the sea and its banks – goes so far as the spirit of Jonas that is in the heart of the water and seems to be rebirth; he comes down to the earth and hugs his child and it is here that music and the southern dance come to the help of the end of the play.

Khorshid [ Having a child in her hands, looks at the river expectantly] Jonas, stay somewhere so as I can see you. Somewhere that you might see that the child has come . . . . . that Khorshid has come . . . . . Now that you see tell me what to do? Halimeh is not here . . . . . My father is not here . . . . . . Your father is not here . . . . . You have stayed very far. Stay somewhere so as you hear me. There Is not anything in Faiazieh any more . . . . . . Every body lives in the tents . . . . . Stay somewhere so as you can see us . . . . . Our hands are short . . . . . you stretch your hands . . . . . take our hands . . . . . . . they say that it is bad if a man stays in a tent. . . . . . They say that Faiazieh is for men . . . . . Women have to go . . . . . . . What is our guilt? . . . . . Look at me . . . . . Look at me . . . . . This Abbas . . . . . . your child, our child . . . . . Abbas! Dear . . . . . You might have been called out to somewhere good; I won’t be here to lit up light for you. Convey my greetings to all and tell them that my heart is always clear and full of warmth for them.
Tell Jonas what I have to tell Khorshid? (The murmurs join and Jonas is heard biting on the drum and he takes the child from the Khorshid. They give the child from one’s hands to those of the others; they are turning and turning and they are biting in excitement and in mourning. (P . P . 75 – 76 ) .
The play called “the Fourth Letter”? written by Jamshid Khanian from the same book is the narration of a form of war that is in the form of Ghasem Mourning in the format of reading some letters; in this work when the faces become brown they have approached death.
Ghasem return home and his return is the homecoming of a martyr. Here, it is Khorram Shahr that is talked about.
Naneh Ghasem: I said if Ghasem is the same at home every night? Sometimes he has no feet. He says Zolfaghari, Zolfaghari I left them. Sometimes there are only holes in his eyes. He says Khorram Shahr. He says the main mosque. I put them there. When he came in bllod home one day, he said: I left them in the mourning of Ghasem . . . . . . I left them there . . . . . (P . 203 ) .
In the “Fine Smell of War”? by Abd – Al – Reza Haiati, Mohsen and his mother, of course many years after the war, came to the city of Khorram Shahr. Mohsen’s father, who was martyred in the imposed war and he is one of the injured men that goes from place to place on wheelchair.
Toraj, Mohsen’s brother, who has taken his family to a foreign country, is horrified at the return of his brother and mother to Khorram Shahr; he come back to Iran and the two brothers who are the outcomes of different ideas and thinking involve in an argument.
Saied – Mohsen’s friends – helps him to be saved from the anger of his brother. Here the spirits of his martyred friends come to help him and arrange his room. Saied brings and old man and his grand daughter called Sabrieh to their house; they are Iraqi wanderers.
Sabrieh is abashed and embarrassed by with the destruction of the city and she hears the voices of the martyrs and those who are dead as Mohsen does. She is in fact a woman who comes in to the life of Mohsen and gives meaning to it and she goes out of it a . s . a . p . They are the clichés of the men and women as the symbol of the two countries who are in war and of course in this play the issue becomes so superficial and banal that the heroine of the play leaves the scene very soon.
It is very strange that a bird whose wing is broken is seen as a symbol for Mohsen and when it is in the hands of Sabrieh it is cured within a week and then it flies and this symbolizes the death and martyrdom of Mohsen himself because the the spirit of his father and his friends appear to him and call him to the heavens. In the end his brother Toraj suddenly comes to his own self and revolutionizes his life.
The play called, Passenger, by Mohsen Samie deal with Khorram Shahr as well. An old father and mother who leave in a village around Khorram Shahr who have lost one of their children in the war, called Ghasem, face with an Iraqi soldier who takes refuge in their home. His name is Jalil and when he wears the clothes of the martyred boy of this family, he seems very much like their Ghasem and His holiness Ghasem as well as Horr; he is also thirsty and since he has taken refuge he is taken in and they satisfy his thirst. Later on it become clarified that the soldier has been carrying the wireless and escaped from the war and takes refuge in the house; the ba’si regime come and surround the house and aim at the house; The Iraqi soldier who now considers the house very dear and the palm tress of the old man as those of his own stays against them and asks the old man and woman to escape and by saying God’s curse be on the oppressive enemies stands against them; the house is destroyed by a cannon ball.
According to the ideas of the writer of this article in order for the everlastingness and stability of the plays in the holy defense war we have to look at the following points:
1 . Becoming familiar with the history of the period before the assault of the Iraqis to the evacuation of the Iraqis from the holy lands of Iran and in consequence becoming aware of fighting tactics as well as the acceptance of the peace treaty and then the end of the war) as well as the geographical history of the involved areas in the war.
2 . Discussing humanitarian issues beyond the national, ethical, racial and the common slogans; in addition paying attention to the issues of sacrifice, self – abnegation and zealot that is the heritage of our religion and culture;
3 . Reaching the standard language and the appropriate literature in this domain (this is because in many of the published plays, we see a very awkward and wrong imitation of the southern accents; they have to become more familiar with the accents of the native people of the war areas but since at the time of the war many men and women from all over Iran were sent to the war fronts with different kinds of language, accents and different languages of the world); therefore an able dramatist and playwright has to have all of these issues in their minds.
1 . Nieman
2 . Halder
3. Georgi Zhukov
4 . Serafimovich
5. Kletskaya
6 . Von manstein
7 . Kotelnikovski
8 . Field Marshal Munstein, says in his memories after the war that: “On 19th December I started to move back from Stalingrad against what Hitler has ordered before and to take them toward the south west and join the fourth armored clad troops there. Munstein has printed his order in a book. But in his order there are some special considerations and Paula was still obeying the orders that were issued by Hitler indicating not to leave the city. Certainly he had thinking turbulence. Munstien says: “This was the only chance to save the German Sixth army”? (Munstein’s book: “Lost Victories”? P . p . 336 – 341 ) and ( P . P . 562 – 563 ) .
9 . Boguchar
10 . This is the issue that the Bonn government published in 1958. Many of the slaves, in the next spring, died of Typhus.
In addition what has been written here has been taken, by edition and re - writing from the third part of the book called “three Faces and a War”? Ernest Hemingway written by Peter Lamb, “The Strange Adventure of Mussolini”? by Milton Braker and “from wandering to the Dictatorship”? and “from Moscow to Stalingrad”? written by William Shabrer translted by Kaveh Dehgan, first Pub . on Mordad 45 , the publication center of Feireidoon Elmi.
Resources :
A. Plays:
A collection of Literary Works:
1 . The Clothes of Hezar Yousef . ( 3 ) . Mohammad Reza Arian Far . Mahmoud Nazeri , Abd – Haie Shamasi , Ali – Reza Hanif , Saied Hussein Fadaei Hussein and . . . . . . , First Edition , Tehran : 1384 . Palizan and Sarir Pub . Co .
2 . Aghaghia People ( 4 ) . Abd Al – Reza Haiati , Jamshid Khanian , Naseh Kamgari , Masud Samie , Saeed Tashakkori , and . . . . . . First Edition , Tehran : 1384 . Palizan and Sarir Pub . Co .

3. Tell Khorshid (Sun ) ( 5 ) . Abd – Al Reza Haiati , Mohammad Ahmadi , Abd Al Haie Shamasi , Mohammad Reza Bi – Gonah , Jamshid Khanian, Hamid Karami Boroujeni and . . . . . . First Edition 1384. Publisher : Palizan and Sarir Pub . Co .
4 . A mouth full of Crow ( 6 ) . Jamshid Khanian , Masoud Salimi , Mohammad Javad Kase Saz , Ali Reza Hanifi , Saied Hussein Fadaei Husein , First Edition 1384. Publisher : Palizan and Sarir Pub . Co .
A collection of Resistance Theater:
5 . Vol . ( 2 ) . Zinat Saleh Pour , Hamid Karami Broujeni , Mohammad Reza Barmaion , Saeed Tashakkori , Morteza Darion Nejad and . . . . . First Edition Tehran 1375. Publisher : The Institution for the Preservation and Safe Keeping of the Works on the Holy defense War (Management of Literature and Publications).
6 . Vol . ( 3 ) . Saeed Tashakkori , Mohammad Reza Arian Far , Saied Hussein Fadaei Hussein, Ali Reza Hanifi , Mohammad Ahmadi and . . . . . (for the anniversary of the release of Khorram Shahr ) First Edition Tehran 1376. Publisher : The Institution for the Preservation and Safe Keeping of the Works on the Holy defense War (Management of Literature and Publications).
7 . Vol . ( 5 ) . Jamshid Khanian, Saeed Lashkari, Saied Hussein Fadaei Hussein, Mohammad Reza Bi Gonah , Ali Roeen Tan masoud Samei and . . . . . . . (for the anniversary of the release of Khorram Shahr ) First Edition Tehran 1376. Publisher : The Institution for the Preservation and Safe Keeping of the Works on the Holy defense War (Management of Literature and Publications).
8 . Four Tales from the Some Tales by Rahman . Ali Reza NAderi , First Edition Tehran : 1382 . Namayesh Pub . Co . . . . .
B . A List of the Books and Journals:
1 . Bairami Mohamamd Reza . Parvaz ; (Some parts of the lives of General martyr Saied Ahmad Kazemi) , HamShahri Newspaper ; First Edition : 1376 .
2 . Javan Bakht Mahmoud , The Fall of Khorram Shahr . First Edition Tehran : 1380 . The Center for better Being of the thoughts among the Children and Youths.
3 . Kharaman , Mostafa . ( The Council of the Writers and the Council of Production ) ; Passing Karoon , Sixth Edition , Tehran : 1381 , Tarikh Va Farhang Pub . Co .
4. The Center for the Scientific and Research Based investigation of Islamic Republic Corps (Mohammad Droodian); From the beginning to the end (A survey of the War in Iran and Iraq). ( 6 ) . Eighth Edition , Tehran : 1383 . . . . . . .
5 . The Center for the Scientific and Research Based investigation of Islamic Republic Corps (after BEit Al – Moghaddas Operation to the Conquer of Fav in Val Fajr 8th Operation ) . First Edition : Tehran : 1369 . . . . .
6 . Ministry of Agriculture ( Saiedeh Elham Bagheri ) , Everlasting Khorram Shahr , First Edition : Tehran : 1384 . Beh Afarain – Jahan Andishe Pub . Co .
7 . Lamb , Peter . Sharer William and Braker Milton . Three Faces and a War, Translated by Kaveh Dehgan . First Edition : Tehran : 1345 . Feriedoon Elmi Pub . co .
8 . Mehdi Zadeh Akbar , Hamidi Nia Hussein and . . . . . Negin Iran (A Quarterly on the War Studies of Iran and Iraq) . First Year , No . 1 , Summer 1381 .
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