News ID: 254687
Publish Date: 18 May 2010 - 04:25
In the theories on the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Elements such as leadership, the culture of self sacrifice and martyrdom and media, etc. are so complicated and vast that studying them requires looking at the elements from different angles expertly and considering all aspects. Therefore, in these series of specialized interviews about the theories of victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran conducted with experts, we have made efforts to look at some of these elements from different angles and points of view. We have classified four elements of “Leadership and Velayat Faghih”?, “The Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom in the Religious Paradigm”?, “Media”? and “The Role of Time in the Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom”? as explained by these experts.
In the theories on the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Elements such as leadership, the culture of self sacrifice and martyrdom and media, etc. are so complicated and vast that studying them requires looking at the elements from different angles expertly and considering all aspects.
Therefore, in these series of specialized interviews about the theories of victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran conducted with experts, we have made efforts to look at some of these elements from different angles and points of view. We have classified four elements of “Leadership and Velayat Faghih”?, “The Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom in the Religious Paradigm”?, “Media”? and “The Role of Time in the Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom”? as explained by these experts.

The First Element:
The Role of Velayat Faghih and Leadership of Imam Khomeini in the Victory of Islamic Revolution of Iran


How do you evaluate the characteristics of Imam Khomeini as the greatest and the most unique leader of revolution in the 20th century?

Dr Asghar Eftekhari, Member of Scientific Board of Imam Sadegh University:


We can categorize the outstanding religious characters in two main models as far as considering the type of their relationship with the revolutionary movements. The first categorization goes back to the people who have had conservative ideas. And while strengthening religious aspects of the social life, they believed that they should not face with the power revolutionarily; but they believed that they should take necessary actions and be influential this way. The second categorization goes back to the great men who accepted and believed in “Revolution”? as a strategy for dealing with the Regime when there is no hope for reform and improvement. Hazrat Imam Khomeini was one of the special leaders included in the second group of mentioned categorization. It means that he not only accepted this idea theoretically but also he was brave enough in action for stepping into this field. In addition to that, he had enough power of management in this field. In other word, the second theory can be analyzed in three levels:
1 - Believing the Revolution
2 - Being Revolutionary
3 - Managing the Revolution
In the first level, the theorist is created. And Imam Khomeini presented the theory by presenting the theory of “Velayat Faghih”?. In the second level, “Leadership”? is created. And considering all difficulties and the fact that “Leadership”? was a critical job, he accepted leadership of the revolution. And in the third level, “Politics”? is produced. And Imam Khomeini presented the plan of “Islamic Republic”? and activated this level. So, why wasn’t the revolution start and define at the time of other clergymen while the situation was prepared?
I believe that the reason goes back to lack of one of the above mentioned factors in those great men and clergymen.

Dr Yadollah Mohammadi, Member of Scientific Board of Imam Hossein University:

The role of leadership is very influential and different in our Islamic Revolution. In our revolution, “Leadership”? had the role of both commandership and the ideologue role as well as the role of a ruler.
Ideologue leader is a person who draws methods of fighting and emphasizes on the fact why the current order should be destroyed and it should be also clarified that the new order should follow which objectives.
As a matter of fact, the ideologue clarifies for the fighters [revolutionary people] what they should look for.
The fact that Imam Khomeini says that there should not be “Kingdom”? System clarifies these objectives for the revolutionary people. Imam Khomeini gives reason for this speech. He says persuading words too. Imam Khomeini explains “Kingdom”? system for people and tells people why there should not be “Kingdom”? system.
But Imam Khomeini questions the performance of the Shah Regime. Imam Khomeini questions “Land Reform”?. Imam Khomeini condemns “Capitulation”? and always asked what America wants in Iran. He always asked the question what Israel wants in Iran. He always asked the question why you sell the oil and put fire on the possessions of people. He asked why you break the pens [It refers to lack of freedom of the press and freedom of speech]. And Imam Khomeini asked why you broke the Constitutional Law.
As a matter of fact, there were two issues at the same time; from one side, Imam Khomeini questioned legitimacy of the Shah Regime and explained why the current order should be destroyed and from the other side, being irreligious of the Shah Regime was itself a reason for occurrence of the Islamic Revolution.
Imam Khomeini looked for an ideal under the title of “Islamic Government”? by which in fact truth and justice were fulfilled. In this system [Islamic Government], the will of God would be fulfilled and the ruling of religion would be the ruling system. In this system, actions would be according to what God has commanded and the religious values would be attached importance. Therefore, religious, unique and ideologue leadership of Islamic Revolution played an important role to achieve these objectives. This leader did not suffice to presenting and giving theories to people; but he was involved in the fights too.
Imam Khomeini was forced into exile for 14 years. “Stample”?, one of the thinkers in the field of political sciences has written in one of his books as follows: “In order to achieve his goal, Ayatollah Khomeini even felt that it was necessary to sacrifice his life. And Imam Khomeini did not doubt for sacrificing his life even for one moment. He had a strong character.”?
In addition to the fact that Imam Khomeini was ideologue, he was the commander of Islamic Revolution too; the commander that came into the field personally in ups and downs. He changed what was on his mind into realities. He had written the Book “Islamic Government”? in Najaf - e Ashraf City [Najaf - e Ashraf is a city in Iraq. Imam Khomeini lived there in exile] and after 13 or 14 years, he established this “Islamic Government”? in action; therefore he made this thought of him into reality. Then, we can say that Imam Khomeini had three aspects of leading the Islamic Revolution, ideological leadership as well as leading as a ruler. And by having these three aspects, he could finish the government of Pahlavi.

Islamic Revolution was a social text that was created by Imam Khomeini. And the people who followed Imam Khomeini created this Islamic Revolution. Islamic Revolution is a social text that has been compiled by Imam Khomeini. The interesting point is the fact that the “Compiler”? has some times entered the field of interpretation. The compiler - that was Imam Khomeini and created the Islamic Revolution - interpreted it too. If we want to define the Islamic Revolution, the definition presented by Imam Khomeini about it is the best definition. Imam Khomeini has described the Islamic Revolution as follows: “Islamic Revolution was the explosion of light.”?
No one can actually interpret and comment on this phenomenon more beautiful than this sentence. The fact that westerns do not understand our Islamic Revolution and get confused about our Islamic Revolution and they have not been able to eliminate this Islamic Revolution for three decades is because of the problem in knowledge sources about the Islamic Revolution. Any one has said words from his point of view. And since they have not known different aspects and greatness of this Islamic Revolution, they take actions such as economic sanctions, starting war and so on. Then what happens? The Iranian nation - that has been defeated in all wars during the last 100 years - achieves victory and glory in the war with Iraq. This nation finishes this war with honor. The whole world was against us in this war of Iraq with Iran.
Considering all what I said and considering the characteristics of Imam Khomeini who led such great revolution and presented new models of leadership, I can name Imam Khomeini’s characteristics as follows:
1 - Imam Khomeini with his strong character moves ahead
2 - Imam Khomeini gives knowledge and information to people
3 - To provide people with knowledge and information, Imam Khomeini gets help from concepts such as “Martyrdom”? and “Self Sacrifice”?
4 - Imam Khomeini knows the history completely. Imam Khomeini knows the political history of Iran completely.
He addressed the two left - wing and right - wing parties and said: “Do not fight with each other. If you do so, your revolution will have the same fate that the Constitutional Revolution had.”?
It shows that he is completely familiar with the history. He has emphasized and referred to the Constitutional Revolution in his lectures several times. He refers to the deceased Modarres [The clergyman who was opposed to Reza Shah. He speaks about Reza Khan [The first king of the Pahlavi family] and also the Qajar Dynasty. All these speeches show the fact that Imam Khomeini was completely familiar with the history of Iran. And when he was the pioneer in the Islamic Revolution, he addresses the enemies and says: “I have prepared my chest for your sword; but I will never accept your tyrannies.”?

The Second Element:
Concept and Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom in the Victory of the Islamic Revolution
“Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”? is one of the most important symbols of Islam Religion which is rooted in “Ashoura”? Uprising [Ashoura is the 10th day of Moharram, the Arabic Month on which Imam Hossein was martyred in Karbala].
What functions did this symbol had in the Islamic Revolution of Iran? And how “Self Sacrifice”? appeared in the beliefs of Iranian people?

Dr Mohammad Sadegh Koushki, Member of Scientific Board of “Political Sciences”? Faculty of Khajeh Naseer - e Tousi University:
When we say that “Islamic Revolution”? causes change in language and life of the listener and audience, it means that it makes the concept of “Martyrdom”?; the concept that is a word in Persian Language; but it is not known. “Martyr”? is not in Persian Language in the meaning explained by Imam Khomeini in many speeches. It was said before the victory of the Islamic Revolution that Imam Hossein and his companions on that day are the only martyrs that we know [The third imam of the Shiite who was martyred in Karbala on Ashoura Day]; but these people are very far from us. And the Islamic Revolution creates an atmosphere in which people can experience “Martyrdom”?. These “Martyrs”? are consisted of the people who were shot by bullets; the people who were shot by the enemy’s bullet when they were young; the people like Martyr Ashrafi Esfahani and Martyr Dastgheyb who were martyred by the terrorist group of “Monafeghin”? at the age of 81 and 80 years old [Monafeghin means hypocrites and it was told to a party that carried out terrorist actions especially at the beginning of the Islamic Revolution. They martyred many of famous characters and ordinary people]. Martyr is also said to Fatemeh, the 3 - year old girl who was martyred by a bomb. This little girl was alone in a container and they put fire in that container and watched her while burning. The collection is complete. It is a collection in which there are people from a 3 - year old child to an 80 year - old man. In this collection, it is human that manages. It is Imam Khomeini that introduces this type of martyrdom to our society. Imam Khomeini is the first person who is prepared for this type of martyrdom. Imam Khomeini says: “I have prepared my chest like a shield to be in front of bullets of the enemy.”?
It means that I am the first person in the first line. And he has shown and proved that he has been the first person in the first line. Many people told Imam Khomeini not to leave Turkey. They told him that Europe is a place in which Shah kill you by getting help from foreign intelligence services; but Imam Khomeini travels to France with no fear. He left there in exile. Imam Khomeini’s air plane was threatened to be shot; but Imam Khomeini comes to Tehran at the peak of these threats. He is settled in “Refah”? and “Alavi”? schools. At the peak of threats, Imam Khomeini meets with people. Formally, Imam Khomeini shows that he is not afraid of death. This is the atmosphere that expresses the concept of “Martyrdom”?. And in practice, “Martyrdom”? and “Expanding the Culture of Martyrdom”? intend to reach to the goal that number and quality of intellectuals and thinkers of the society increase and the number of people who know their religious duties and are ready to ignore any personal interests for fulfillment of their religious duties is increased day by day

Ali Dejakam, Head of Fundamental Researches Department of the Supreme Leader Office in Universities:
There has been always a question about “Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”?. The question is if “Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”? was a theory in the victory of the Islamic Revolution or it was chosen after the Islamic Revolution as a strategy for sacred defense.
I believe that attention of Imam Khomeini to “Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”? existed in the theory of Islamic Revolution since the beginning. As an example, if you read the speeches of Imam Khomeini delivered in 1342 [1963-1964], you find out that our revolution could not be formed without “Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”?; but if we intend to achieve a great change in the society and if we intend to execute Islam rules and achieve a revolution, it is natural that we should devote and have “self Sacrifice”?. And “Martyrdom”? is naturally included in this “Self Sacrifice”?. In this “Self Sacrifice”? there is being tortured and imprisonment. There is exile included in this “Self Sacrifice”?. And there are many other things included in this “Self Sacrifice”?. It means that Hazrat Imam Khomeini was exactly aware of these things. And it could not be at all possible to form the revolution if there was no “Self Sacrifice”? and in a situation except what I mentioned above [Torture, Imprisonment, etc that are included in the concept of self sacrifice].
If I want to give a convincing answer to this issue, I should say that the opinion of Imam Khomeini about the concept of “Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”? became deeper and more exact after the Islamic Revolution. And we should not ignore the role of the culture of “Battle Field”? in growth of such attitude. By comparing with the martyrs of Karbala, Imam Khomeini shows that “martyrdom”? is a value in our culture. And since he has grown up in the same culture, he propagates this culture. Therefore, the concept of “Self Sacrifice”? and “Martyrdom”? has existed in the opinions of Imam Khomeini since the beginning of his activities. There were fighters who were imprisoned and tortured. And Imam Khomeini describes their being tortured as worship. Or when Imam Khomeini was forced to exile, he said: “It is not important to be in Turkey, Iraq or any other place.”?
Why? That is because he considers the same fact of living in exile as “Self Sacrifice”? and as a value and growth.

Dr Akbar Ashrafi, Research Deputy of Islamic Revolution of Iran Documents Center:

Religious symbols appeared much in the Islamic Revolution. And the connection between the Islamic Revolution and “Ashoura”? is vastest than what we imagine. Religious appearance are linked to the Islamic Revolution in “Tasou’aa”? and “Ashoura”? too [Tasou’aa is the 9th day of Moharram the Arabic Month]. And the leader is the symbol of connection between the Islamic Revolution and religion. And this leader is also “Marja’”? of religion [Marja’ is the religious leader whose commands are obeyed by people]. While he is the religious leader, he becomes the political leader too. As an example, when Imam Khomeini says: “People! Do this job!”? people do not evaluate if it is a political command or a religious command. They just do as the leader has commanded. That is because religion and politics are not separated from each other in the Shiite and revolutionary culture. And the most important thing is the fact that people had deeply believed in obeying “Velayat Faghih”?. And the Islamic Revolution would not really achieve victory if people were not present in the stage widely. Therefore, we can say that although different groups participated in the revolution but their influence and roles were not so important that could be considered as influential element. Documents, influences and the symbols used in the Islamic Revolution show this fact.
Dr Yadollah Mohammadi, Member of Scientific Board of “Political Sciences”? Faculty of Imam Hossein University:

Imam Khomeini focused on the aspect that was the secret of victory and growth of our Islamic Revolution. And that is the matter of cultural issue and the issue of awareness of our people. Imam Khomeini believed that nations will start moving if they are awakened. And if they are awakened they make their fate and future. As a matter of fact, Imam Khomeini emphasized on the fact that nations should be focused and awakened. According to him; governments should not be the target but the nations. Imam Khomeini focused on ordinary people. He says that ordinary people will start moving and dethrone the bad regimes from their thrones if you awaken them. Another point is the fact that Imam Khomeini actually put the nation on a bifurcation. He brought up the issues of “Jihad”? [Fighting in the way of God] and “Martyrdom”?. He brought up the issue of historical examples. He told the nation: “You people, that say I wish it was the Islam age and I wish it was Karbala time [Karbala is the place where Imam Hossein, the third imam of the Shiite was martyred on the day of Ashoura, the 10th day of Moharram, the Arabic Month] know that “All days are “Ashoura”? and all places are “Karbala”?. It means that Imam Khomeini clearly told the nation that the current situation is similar to the situation of Karbala. Besmellah! [It means in the name of God. It is said while encouraging some one to stand and start a big job] Start uprising and do not think that the regime of Pahlavi is better than the regime of “Yazid”? [The ruler that ordered to kill Imam Hossein and his companions]. And it means that Imam Khomeini considered the regime of Pahlavi as bad as the regime of “Yazid”?.
Imam Khomeini said: “All days are “Ashoura”? and all places are “Karbala”?. He brought up the issues of “Jihad”? [Fighting in the way of God] and “Martyrdom”? for people. He brought up the issue of historical examples. Imam Khomeini compared simple way of life of Hazrat Ali [The first imam of Shiite] with the luxury way of living of the government men in the country; he reminds that these government men waste lots of public budget and facilities. He reminds the corruptions in the system of the country. Then Imam Khomeini brought up the second important concept and that is the idea of “Jihad”? [Fighting in the way of God] and “Martyrdom”?. Imam Khomeini clarified for people that how Seyed - ol - Shohada [It refers to Imam Hossein, the third imam of the Shiite people] revolted against the cruelty. Then Imam Khomeini emphasized on the fact that Seyed ol Shohada intended to establish a government; an Islamic Government according to the criteria of his grand father, the Prophet [His grand father refers to the Islam Prophet, Hazrat Mohammad].
The Third Element:
The Role of Media in Propagating the Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom as One of the Factors of Victory of the Islamic Revolution

Making different sectors of people in the society familiar with the ideas of Imam Khomeini required a vast media network. And Imam Khomeini did not have such vast network in his control. Imam neither had special medium nor public tribune through which he could transfer his messages to people. His lecture sessions were some times severely controlled by the security forces. Therefore, movements and lectures were very conservative and along with a lot of caution before the time the movements of the Islamic Revolution became serious.
What were the information dissemination networks of Imam Khomeini through which Imam could communicate with different sectors of people? How could these networks be expanded among people? How did the media - related opinions of Imam Khomeini particularly in the field of propagating the culture and spirit of self sacrifice and martyrdom influence on the movement of the Islamic Revolution?
Dr Manouchehr Adiban, Research Deputy of Islamic Consultative Assembly Research Center:
Before speaking about the main subject, let me give you an introductory and have a look at the situation o media of the world in the historical period of the Islamic Revolution. The world witnessed great changes at the period of time during which the Islamic Revolution was formed.
As a matter of fact, Islamic Revolution was concurrent with series of events part of which should be sought in the fact that media became powerful and found influential role in the global events. Therefore, it is better to take a look at atmosphere of media at that period of time. A movement had been caused by the countries of the Third World countries in the 1970’s decade. This movement complained the free flow of information and the media dominance of the West. It included a large amount of critical literature that criticized news and media dominance of West. From the other side, the criticisms presented by communication critics showed the fact that media system of West was along with multidimensional and deep dominance.
All these indicate the fact that during the 1970’s decade, media in the expansionist countries spread news and information in the countries of the Third World such as Iran. It was not a simple and surface movement; but a deep insight movement was formed at that period of time.
This function of the media had prevailed in different field of economy, politics, etc. during 1950 and 1960. And it reached to its top point in 1970’s decade. And finally, in the 1980’s decade and following failure of this media movement, the free flow of information prevailed. And it was despite the efforts made by the countries of the Third World. It was done by international foundations and organization such as the United Nations Organization and …
If we consider the year 1341 [1962-1963] as the start of Imam Khomeini’s revolutionary movement and his protest against the approval of “State and Provincial Forums”? and we want to draw a picture of media at that period of time, we should refer to being governmental as the most characteristic of media, especially the news papers. As a matter of fact, in this period of time, personal life of artists and singers was the most important subject in different magazines and news papers.
News papers such as “Keyhan”? and “Ettela’at”? never focused on basic and social issues during this period of time. This atmosphere was how ever influenced by the coup d’etat in 1332 [1953-1954] and the very close and controlled political atmosphere after this coup d’etat.
“SAVAC”? [The intelligence service of the Pahlavi Regime] severely controlled the society and suppressed people. And it worsened the situation. There were two other factors that led to deterioration of the media in this period of time. These two factors were namely lack of responsible and committed journalists and the fact that government men did not accept any criticisms. They were very sensitive to the critics published in the media and the press.
In a major look, we can say that these media and press were the continuation of the movement by which media dominance of West could expand their under - influence audiences more than before.
Islamic Revolution of Iran was formed in such media and press atmosphere. Some theorists how ever believe that the Islamic Revolution of Iran shows dominance of a particular type of media at this period of time. They say: “Traditional media overcame the modern media and press.”?
But I believe that Iran had a revolution in communication and media as it was basically the beginning of a domestic revolution and appearance of an international revolution in different fields of insight, culture, politics and economy, etc.
I deeply believe that the Islamic Revolution is a turning point for an Iranian modern paradigm compared with all the theories and paradigms prevailed at that time. Therefore, we can describe the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a media revolution not merely in Iran but in all around the world.
The atmosphere ruling on the press and media at that period of time was influenced by the west - influenced policies of the government and suppressive policies of the “SAVAC”?. It was the reason that while some media [Including TV, magazines and news papers] were busy with propagating modern fashions of the world, another media - radio and TV in particular that had recently started operation - were busy with forming the public opinions in order to justify the objectives of the Pahlavi Regime and the American Imperialism. They had vastly planned for changing Islamic beliefs of people and the religious leadership. In order to fight with clergymen, they called clergymen as “Black Reactionary”? and the being opposed to the progress and development. Imam Khomeini was very sensitive about the content of produced programs. Imam Khomeini also cared about choosing the appropriate media in the system of Iran.
Due to the atmosphere of the press and media in Iran, the situation was not suitable for entrance of Imam Khomeini to Iran. And it was not possible to propagate his thoughts and ideas.
Imam Khomeini might not hesitate about opening a private radio and TV channel if it was possible for him. Considering the atmosphere of TV, radio, news papers and magazines at that period of time, Imam Khomeini decided to benefit from the traditional channel of communication. This strong traditional communicative channel of clergymen was available in all parts of the country. And Imam Khomeini benefited from this channel well. Imam Khomeini benefited from this channel to spread and expand the Islamic ideology and the idea of revolution.
As for this channel, theorists say: “Revolution of Iran is the revolution of nightly published and distributed news papers and leaflets and also cassettes.”?
It means that revolution of traditional media and overcoming the modern media. This movement goes back to the last years before the victory of the Islamic Revolution; but basic activities of the revolution required face to face and speech - based communication. And it was the same mentioned traditional communicative channel that contributed to achieve this goal.
But I believe that Iran had a revolution in communication and media as it was basically the beginning of a domestic revolution and appearance of an international revolution in different fields of insight, culture, politics and economy, etc.
I deeply believe that the Islamic Revolution is a turning point for an Iranian modern paradigm compared with all the theories and paradigms prevailed at that time. Therefore, we can describe the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a media revolution not merely in Iran but in all around the world.
The atmosphere ruling on the press and media at that period of time was influenced by the west - influenced policies of the government and suppressive policies of the “SAVAC”?. It was the reason that while some media [Including TV, magazines and news papers] were busy with propagating modern fashions of the world, another media - radio and TV in particular that had recently started operation - were busy with forming the public opinions in order to justify the objectives of the Pahlavi Regime and the American Imperialism. They had vastly planned for changing Islamic beliefs of people and the religious leadership. In order to fight with clergymen, they called clergymen as “Black Reactionary”? and the being opposed to the progress and development. Imam Khomeini was very sensitive about the content of produced programs. Imam Khomeini also cared about choosing the appropriate media in the system of Iran.
Due to the atmosphere of the press and media in Iran, the situation was not suitable for entrance of Imam Khomeini to Iran. And it was not possible to propagate his thoughts and ideas.
Imam Khomeini might not hesitate about opening a private radio and TV channel if it was possible for him. Considering the atmosphere of TV, radio, news papers and magazines at that period of time, Imam Khomeini decided to benefit from the traditional channel of communication. This strong traditional communicative channel of clergymen was available in all parts of the country. And Imam Khomeini benefited from this channel well. Imam Khomeini benefited from this channel to spread and expand the Islamic ideology and the idea of revolution.
As for this channel, theorists say: “Revolution of Iran is the revolution of nightly published and distributed news papers and leaflets and also cassettes.”?
It means that revolution of traditional media and overcoming the modern media. This movement goes back to the last years before the victory of the Islamic Revolution; but basic activities of the revolution required face to face and speech - based communication. And it was the same mentioned traditional communicative channel that contributed to achieve this goal.
As a matter of fact, the clergymen who delivered speech in mosques and religious sessions were in the center of this traditional communicative channel. They paved grounds for fulfillment of Islamic Revolution.
It is interesting that the character of media had been influenced by Imam Khomeini. In this respect, we need to study in order to define again the role of the media at that time.
It should be mentioned that the Islamic view of Imam Khomeini was based on giving information to all sectors of people in wide range and also breaking the dominance of western media. And this view is one of the first reasons for change of this definition. If you see that media play the role of fighting with expansionism and dominance of West during the last 4 or 5 years, parts of it is because of the same mentioned media - related theories of Imam Khomeini.
In the recent war of Gaza, we witness that western media had planned a programmed silence. This way, they wanted to massacre the oppressed people while people were not aware of the news. What did really happen that the Zionist Regime withdraw from its positions?
It was because nothing except the fact that some media like “Al Alam”? appeared as alternative media. Even BBC could not keep silence when the news on crimes was spread. Imam Khomeini was very intelligent in using the media. For instance, Muslims demonstrate and condemn cruelty in the world during Hajj which is itself the biggest media in the world.
Where could Imam Khomeini communicate with people in your opinion? It was the period of time in which high ranking officials of the countries of the Third World made their daily decisions based on the news spread by the western news agencies. It is told in memories of these high ranking officials.
I have heard that foreign officials brought conserves when they came to Iran. It was because they were afraid of having no food in here. It shows the fact that they were influenced by the news.
Therefore, in opinion of Imam Khomeini, media are instruments that can be changed and defined again considering his objectives.
In the culture [Event] of “Ashoura”?, we see that Seyed - ol - Shohada [Seyed - ol - Shohada refers to Imam Hossein, thee third imam of the Shiite] acted as media by his martyrdom and the martyrdom of his companions. This way, Imam Hossein saved Islam from being eliminated. “Ashoura”? is a set of media. Why do we emphasize on the emotional aspects in propagating the culture of “Ashoura”?? Why are the lectures delivered by Hazrat Zeynab this much important [Hazrat Zeynab is the sister of Imam Hossein. She delivered very important lectures after the event of Ashoura and gave the message of Ashoura to people]?
In “Sahifeh Sajjadieh”?, Hazrat Sajjad says: “I am the child of Ahl e Beit [Islam Prophet’s family].”?
[Hazrat Sajjad is the fourth imam of the Shiite and the son of Imam Hossein. And Sahifeh Sajjadieh is the book written by him.]
And this sentence has media meaning.

Dr Ali Morshedi-zad, Member of Scientific Board of “Political Sciences”? Faculty of Shahed University
In order to mobilize people, revolutionary forces usually need different tools and communicative channels. They also need organization. Mobilizing people requires ideology and leadership. And all of these some times form the mobilization organization in revolutions.
Soviets are formed in the Soviet Union. And the current existing organizations are used in some of the revolutions; the organizations that have been established for other purposes. As an example in China, Mao used the rural organizations. And mosques were the most important organizations that were used in the Islamic Revolution of Iran. As I said, the communicative channel of Rouhaniat [Clergymen] was strengthened since the Qajar Dynasty time by then. This channel went to the furthest villages of the country.
This network connection could transfer the messages very easily. And the message of Imam Khomeini either when he was in Najaf - e - Ashraf [A city in Iraq] or when he was in Paris was transferred to Iran by leaflets. And you see that it does not take long that the message of the revolution is sent to the furthest village of the country in one day. It is the most important tool or organization that Rouhaniat”? [Clergymen] used.

Dr Mohammad Sadegh Koushki, Member of Scientific Board of “Political Sciences”? Faculty of Khajeh Naseer - e Tousi University:

The Islamic Revolution of Iran is the only revolution, in which the revolutionary forces do not use tools such as guns, munitions, etc. But the tools of these revolutionary forces are books, leaflets and cassettes. Yes, to be more precise, I should say that Islamic Revolution is a revolution which its symbol is in the media; a revolution that its occurrence is on minds, tongues and lives of people. Why is it on the minds of people? Because this revolution destroys thoughts and imaginations such as “We are condemned to accept the fate”?, “We are not able to change”?, “We are smaller than causing change”?, “We can not”? and “It is not possible”?.
Islamic Revolution changes such thoughts so fundamentally that the Muslim Iranian addressed society feels being powerful and feels no fear at all. And this feeling of being powerful is rooted in wisdom and thinking. It is not a blind feeling; because it could not last since 1341 [1962-1963] to 1357 [1978-1979] and become more powerful every day; if it was not so, it could not cause change in the language of people; because the language of people does not mean the words but it means the field about which they think; it means that idea is presented in a place that is called “Language”?. New concepts such as “Mostaz’afin”? [The needy and oppressed people], “Mostakberin”? [The people who are cruel and abuse power] and even words such as “Martyrdom”? and “Janbazi”? [Losing parts of one’s body or being injured in the way of God] cause meanings for us which have been formed in our language due to the Islamic Revolution.
Words like “Martyr”?, “Mostaz’afin”? and “Mostakberin”? already existed in our language; but they were empty from the meanings that Islamic Revolution gives to them.
Imam Khomeini comes in the period of time in which every one speaks about imperialism, “Toudeh”?, proletariat, people and workers. Imam Khomeini comes and uses words such as “Mostaz’afin”?, “Mostakberin”? and “Global Expansionism”?. Instead of words like “The Countries of the Third World”?, “The Countries of the First World”?, “Developed Country”?, “Backward Country”? and “Imperialism”?, Imam Khomeini uses the words such as “Deprived Nations”?, “Oppressed Nations”? and “Barefoot Nations Oppressed by Dictators”?.
As a matter of fact, Imam Khomeini uses the religious literature.
Change in language means that the meaning source of the society changes. And the society find new source of meanings and then change is caused in the life of people. The goal of life and the meaning of life change for people and continues in the path of the Islamic Revolution since 1341 [1962-1963] to 1357 [1978-1979] and in continuation of the Islamic Revolution as well as the years of war and after that and even the international horizons such as the revolution in Bosnia, Afghanistan, Kashmir and …

The Fourth Element:
Influence of Period of Time on Appearance of the Culture of Self Sacrifice and Martyrdom and Its Relationship with the Role of Leadership in the Islamic Revolution

Constitutional Revolution occurred before the Islamic Revolution. Is the Constitutional Revolution a basis for the Islamic Revolution or not? When we read the history, we see that cruelty and injustice prevailed during the Qajar Dynasty - particularly when Nassereddin Shah was the king of Iran - more than the time of Pahlavi Regime; but no revolution happened during the Qajar Dynasty. What is the reason in your opinion?

Dr Mohammad Sadegh Koushki, Member of Scientific Board of “Political Sciences”? Faculty of Khajeh Naseer - e Tousi University:
Constitutional Movement was in fact a movement that was carried out by the people who could not tolerate injustice and cruelty any more; the insurgent and oppressed people who demonstrated their dissatisfaction with the current situation. None of these people could draw a favorable horizon; it means that they merely knew what they did not want; but they did not know what they want. And such movement can not be naturally called as “Revolution”? with its real meaning; because it did not cause changes in our society. It was a public uprising, riot or rebellion.
Paving grounds for fighting with cruelty and expansionism, is the only main effect that was caused by this movement. In this movement, people felt that it is possible to carry out actions against Shah. People felt that they could make efforts for changing their fate. And they felt that they were not condemned to destiny. It was the only change that appeared. Yes, Constitutional Movement failed because it did not result in any changes in the society. It merely created that mental atmosphere that people are able to and they have the right to change their fate; but this movement was not successful in action. That’s all.
Constitutional Movement was a change in the field of minds; but no changes were made in the reality.
Movement of “Nationalization of Oil Industry”? was merely a movement too. It had backgrounds of fighting with cruelty and expansionism; it was anti - expansionism movement because this movement intended to cut the hands of foreign countries from the land of Muslims. It was actually a kind of protest against the heavy western forces and the presence of western governments that had come to Iran after “Safavid”? dynasty and stayed in our country for 200 years. And they imposed them to Iran seriously during the Qajar Dynasty. I apologize that I am forced to remind this bitter reality; but this movement was a protest to presence of the British forces in Iran for 150 years. It was a protest against the cruel deals that they had made regarding the phenomenon of oil in Iran; but this movement did not achieve the success it should reach. The Oil Industry was how ever nationalized; but after a short time, the issue of “Nationalization of Oil Industry”? was cancelled very fast following signing the new agreements. As a matter of fact, the Iranian nation was not the main winner again.

Dr Asghar Eftekhari, Member of Scientific Board of Imam Sadegh University:
I can not simply agree with what you said about the time that Nassereddin Shah ruled on Iran. In other word, we should categorize the ruling time of Nassereddin Shah into two main period of time: in the first period of time, we witness ruling based on a disciplinary and powerful model. John Foran has referred to this period of time while studying the political and social changes of Iran. This is the approach that dries the buds of any reforming and revolutionary movement. But in the second period of time, Nassereddin Shah lost authority and faced with decline. While passing to the next period of time, grounds are paved for a revolutionary movement. You should notice the fact that we have not yet spoken about the important and influential role of “Leadership in Revolution”? and “Supporter Organization of Revolution”?. These mentioned factors played considerable role in the Islamic Revolution of Iran. And even in the Constitutional Movement, we witness the critical position of these factors.

Source: Quarterly Books of Shahed Andishe
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