News ID: 247595
Publish Date: 17 March 2010 - 08:06
The great events and eventful happenings which affect the life and history of a nation would surely affect and create changes in the culture, art and literature and even the points of views and world views of the people of those countries. The eight years of the holy defense war, which was a religious and a compact war of the people of Iran, this eventful land, was, in the last three decades, the greatest historical event of this country. This war, with its defensive, spiritual and freedom seeking essence, had very amazing effects on different social, political, religious, cultural literary aspects even thought it is timely. Since the literature of any period has an incessant relationship with the events and issues of that period and since it plays a great role in the reflections and showing the political, social, cultural and historical events of the human societies, the holy defense war was the cause for the creation of a great and extensive as well as powerful literary movement in the country.
The great events and eventful happenings which affect the life and history of a nation would surely affect and create changes in the culture, art and literature and even the points of views and world views of the people of those countries. The eight years of the holy defense war, which was a religious and a compact war of the people of Iran, this eventful land, was, in the last three decades, the greatest historical event of this country. This war, with its defensive, spiritual and freedom seeking essence, had very amazing effects on different social, political, religious, cultural literary aspects even thought it is timely. Since the literature of any period has an incessant relationship with the events and issues of that period and since it plays a great role in the reflections and showing the political, social, cultural and historical events of the human societies, the holy defense war was the cause for the creation of a great and extensive as well as powerful literary movement in the country.
With this awful and sorrowful event to happen, the writers of the war literary fiction have tried a lot in registering and writing artistically from the very beginning days of the war in which the ambience of the society was filled with enthusiasm and commotion to the end of the war and even at the present time in which there happened a lot of different points of view of the writers and the people regarding the war; these have been done to stabilize the origins and historical identity of this nation against eventful and terrible storms and thunders and to provide the new ways for the future generations and to show the ways to freedom and liberty to these youngsters.
If we want to show all the great events that took place in the course of the history and that are registered in the pages of the history then we will find that none of them is as valuable as martyrdom. Hereby, it is inevitable for us to refer to a few novels which have literary values among hundreds of novels and stories that are dedicated to the issue of war in Iran; and those that are dealing with the position of martyrdom in the literature of resistance in our country.

Survival and durability of each nation and community is indebted and beholden to the self – sacrifice of its people and the community and perhaps the self – sacrifice and self – denial of the people of that country and the individuals brings with them awakening and pride for the community. With a cursory look at the history of the nations we would find that if a nation of culture has enjoyed sacrifice and martyrdom, it will remain victorious and honorable. . . . The humanitarian school of Islam considers martyrdom an everlasting life and thus it is said in the holy Qur'an that: "Do not consider those who die for the sake God dead, rather they are alive and they are fed by God." This same school and this same holy Qur'an are the best models and paradigms for Jihad for the sake of God. About the role of the literature in encouraging and enticing the warriors of Islam it is enough to say that the prophet Muhammad ( S. A. ) used to give his speech in a verse form so that when the army came into the arena while they were reading some verses and this was the cause of the victories of the army of Islam. Prophet Mohammad (S. A. ) said: If you die you will go to paradise and if you live an be victorious then you will be honorable. We also see some notable examples of the role of literature in encouraging and enticing the army of the Islam in the holy movement of his Holiness the Chief of the Martyrs (A. S. ).
The history of the reflection of war in literature dates back to the ancient times and the mythological times and the times of heroism; in a way that a great bulk of the world literary masterpieces has been created on the subject of war. In this regard one can name tens of works in which the authors have made use of war and thereby presented an image of belligerent men and those who are seeking peace. The eight years of war that was imposed on our country was due to some reasons different from other wars that took place elsewhere in the world. The eight years of the defense war was a war that was waged on a us by a country that was fully equipped with the ammunitions and was well politically and militaristically supported on the part of the some powerful countries of the world; all these have been done against a country that was newly became independent and passed the revolutionary changes; it cause some very special problems for this country. The combination of the religious culture with the resistance spirit of the people as well as the will of the people against the trespassers created a special form of war which was dissimilar to the other wars that took place in other part of the world. The Shiites and the Alavi culture have been influenced by historical events especially Ashura movement, had given this war a special ambience and it was the "culture of martyrdom".
War is the hell of the supreme humanitarian emotions, the destroyer of peace and immunity of life and it is the "slaughter house of the life and properties of the human beings." (Khademi Koolaei , Bi Ta P. 111). It might be because of the avoiding this great taboo of the human cognition that in the culture of our country, most of time we use the term "holy defense war" instead of war. With all these in consideration, human beings are not able to avoid war; sometimes it is necessary to fight in order to reach immunity and security. In this condition, literature as the main domain of the values and thinking, in addition to strengthening the communal spirit of epic and generosity tries to present and show the artistic emotions and enthusiasm at the very sensitive and vital time of war which is most of the times accompany a lot of difficulties and problems. Without doubt, literary fiction is an inseparable and at the same time the most extensive part of the literature of the defense war.
War or sacrifice with a moving and reactive role in the creation of a literature on war and sacrifice but we can not say that literature has an effect role in this play of cause and effect and that it can have some effects in this regard without having a mutual interaction. Literature can also be an effective element on the wars, sacrifices and death for the sake of ideals. Of course one can not move away from justice for it was literature that in most of the cases has been affected strong movements such as war and of course its consequences. Such as sacrifice and generosity and it has done its best to reflect these effects in an artistic manner. We have seen a lot in the history that the wars and sacrifices as well as the problems and difficulties of the people led to the creation of literary works. But we can count for some very few samples that might have been too effective in arousing sacrifice and generosity to determine the end of a war.

The Denotative and Connotative Meanings of Martyr and Martyrdom:
Martyrdom (Shahadat) and martyr (Shahid) are taken from the world "Shad" which has different meanings and applications. Martyrdom means presence, being aware of the facial affairs of things, and witnessing means giving absolute news, observing and some other meanings related to this item. Martyr the plural form of which is Martyrs in Arabic is a subject noun and sometimes in interpretation it is used as an object. (Ibne – Manzoor 1405). In the Islamic texts and vocabulary the martyr is a person who is killed for the sake of God or he is a fighter who is killed who gives his / her life for the sake of the truth and right (Ibid.). Gorjani in his book called Ta'rif (P. 108) has talked about the word martyr: "The martyr is an adult and pure Muslim who has given his life to fight with cruelty and without expecting to gain any materialistic gains. It is said that the martyr is called a martyr from the point of view that the angels witness that he would go directly to paradise or since he is alive and not dead as if he is alive and present or that God witnessed that he was killed for the sake of truth and right or because he has given his life for the sake of god, then he is given God's insights (Ibid).
Martyrdom for the sake of God includes being killed in the war arena, terror and terrorizing of the Muslims by the enemies, being killed in defending one's life, honor or property at any time or in any place (Ghara'ati , 1377 : 308 ).

Martyr and Martyrdom in the Religious Literature:
Religious literature has a lot of interaction with this word. In the holy Qur'an the word Shahd and its derivations were used for about 150 times; the word martyrdom is used 35 times and its plural form martyrs were used 20 times and the plural form (i. e. for two persons) was used once. In addition to the Qur'anic verses, the Islamic narrations are so deep in dealing with the issues of martyrdom and martyrs that they need extensive and independent researches. Vasail Al – Shiites, Mostadrak, Behar Al – Anvar, Mizan Al – Hikmat, Noor – Al – Seghalain, Kenz Al – Ommal and other Islamic Resources have made use of the speeches of Prophet Muhammad (S. A.) and other Innocent Imams (A. S.) to discuss and to count for the Islamic points of view regarding the meanings of the terms martyrs and martyrdom as well as the worth that Islam considers for Martyrs. (Ibid. , Vol . 2 . P . P . 226 – 228 ) .
If we want to discuss and determine as well as to evaluate all the great events that took place in the history and are registered in the pages of history, we will find out that no one of them is more valuable than the issue of martyrdom. Martyrdom is not just self – denial and self – sacrifice rather it is self – sacrifice and self – denial that is accompanied by awakening and enlivening all the human beings out of lethargy and lack of attention, therefore the martyr injects blood in the vessels of the dead and inactive people and enlivens and strengthens them.
In general, the concepts of martyrs and martyrdom have got two main important bases: first is that the martyrdom is done based on complete awareness; this means that the person chooses it himself and secondly it is for the sake of God. The existence of these two concepts differentiates martyrdom from the other deaths and specifies its values. Our supreme God says: I love to meet a servant of mine who is interested in seeing me. Our holy prophet says about the worth of martyrdom that: the best death is martyrdom. Imam Ali ( A. S. ) says in this regard: The worthiest, the most glorious and the dearest deaths is to be killed for the sake of God. Of course martyrdom is the first choice, the fighter first of all thinks of victory and it is in the second stage that he thinks of death. According to Imam Ali (A. S.) in his prayer before war, "if you bestowed us with victory over the enemies keep us away from transgression and please make us stable on the right paths and in case they have been victorious over us please bestow martyrdom on us and . . . . . " (Nahj Al – Balagha , Preach Number 171) our duty is to preserve and keep the values and those things for which the martyrs have given their lives.
Literary Fiction and War:

One of the important literary genres in any country is the war literature in that country. The countries whose nations have been faced with wars have created some literary works in this regard; according to the role and the positions they took in the war, their literature was known under different titles: The Literature of the Great defense of the Country (in Russia), literature of resistance (in France), war literature (in the U. S. ) Anti – war literature ( in Germany ) and the literature of the holy defense war ( In Iran ) as well as . . . . . . .
There is no doubt that the trace of literature in war goes a long time back and it has always been a basic theme for the world writers; we know a lot of stories in which war has been the most major part if not all of the story but not necessarily all the authors have been seen the war from close quarters. Writing about war provides the author with an extensive domain that can through "artistic registration" of the events, presentation of the brevity, epic, wars, defeats and victories they can write events and the happenings. With having a cursory look at Short Story writing in the last two centuries, this point will be clarified that a lot of novels and short stories made us of the war events and tribal clashes that have occurred between two or more countries, between different tribes of the same nation or between two different groups with different beliefs. The first and the second world wars have been the cause for the creation of many literary works that have so far been written.
Not only Hemingway was taking part in the civil wars of Spain and the Novel called "For Whom the Bells Toll" is about this civil war, he himself was injured in the First World War I. Tolstoy was also presenting the exact angels of the pictures and the strange scenes of the Russian war with France in his great novel called "War and Peace". Better than any other historians, in this novel, he presents the details of the events and his story is more than any literary works everlasting; it describes the difficulties and the worries as well as the happiness, victory and defeats. "Gone with the Wind" written by Margaret Mitchell, "A Lonely Woman among the People" written by Heinriche Belle, "The Victim" and "The Skin" two works by Malla Parte and hundreds of other great works have accounted for some parts of the great events of the Two World Wars in a wonderful and great way. Indeed the precise and true stories are extracted from the hearts of these stories and novels.
This great and long continuum has come to our days in a weak or powerful way. Even if the authors of the contemporary times have not felt the war at close quarters, they understand the conditions of wars and the surrounding events and they took their senses far to the ending parts of the history and by making use of the events of war they create artistic works. Talking about war events in the stories and literary reports in continuous years from the past to present have been something common and this has never been stopped and all these show that the subject of war has never gone out of the life of the human beings and accordingly from the lives of the writers and authors and its continuation to the present time is not something so strange and abnormal.
The war literature has hallways had a special warmth and hotness. According to a writer in the field of the sociology of war "War is the creator of History, and in fact history has started with explaining the armed clashes and it seems inevitable that this phenomenon, will fade away because the war have been the most important and the most obvious beginnings for histories and they are at the same time the borders that distinguish the greatest stages . . . . . . . from one another. Almost all the famous civilizations have die out due to the wars. All the new civilizations have come into existence with wars. (Far Khojaste , Bi Ta : 121 – 125 ) .

A Brief History:
After the Islamic Republic and the down fall of the kingship government in Iran, the contemporary literature of Iran gets some very obvious characteristics step by step that we can dub it as the beginning of a new literary era; it is an era in which the literature of the age kept its relation with the tradition of writing short stories in Iran and again it tries to make its hands at writing based on new methodologies subjects. Change in seeing a generation who has passed through the fire of the revolution and war as well as its political and economical consequences results in changes in literary sensitivities. It is these changes that differentiate the literature of a period from that of the other periods. It in this period that a literary tradition is formed which is called the literature of the Islamic Revolution. The first literary works that were written in this regard were like reports such as the Revolution times or step by step with the revolution; these works the memories of their writers on the revolution days.
There were also numerous documented works that divulged the plots of the Shah's regime. Then the writers such as Naser Irani, Esmaeel Fasih, Ahmad Mahmoud, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Ghasem Ali Ferasat, Javad Mojabi and Reza Barahani as well as . . . . . . . . have dealt with the Revolution in the novel form. In 1980 ( 1358 ) a center for Islamic thinking and art was formed as a result of the efforts of a group of poets and writers which used to emphasize the role of religion in art and literature and thereby it brought up a group of new story writers. These writers created this kind of literature with the start of the imposed war in the end of the fall 1981 ( 1359 ). The Collection of stories called two Dim Eyes 1985 ( 1363 ) , Six Tableaux 1982 ( 1360 ) , A Long Story Amen Chicken 1982 ( 1360 ) and the Burnt land 1985 ( 1363 ) are considered as the first works of the war literature. . . . . . . . . Writing stories on Revolution has decreased widely since the year 1981 (1359 ) and writing stories on war began and it reached its apex in 1369. In this decade about 1600 short stories were published in the magazines as well as collective works; in addition about 46 novels and long stories were published. Almost none of the writers remained careless about war and its consequences; in a way that since 1981 (1359 ) to 1994 ( 1373 ) . . . . . . . .more than 258 writers write about the daily life in the front lines, military Operations , torture in the detention houses of the enemy, the disorderly condition of life in the civil areas, the wars in the cities , deaths and destructions, the wandering of the war ridden people and the clashes the migrants and the people of the cities to which the migrants were migrating. The first seminar to investigate the novel of war in Iran and the world is held to investigate the works done in this regard in the year 1992 (1372). Different institutes and organizations set up an office to support and to develop the literature of the Islamic Revolution and war. The artistic association set up a special office that was devoted to the Literature of the Islamic Revolution and they themselves set up a magazine for the literary fiction. This publication replaced Jang – e – Sureh since October 1992 and ran for 15 issues. The Office of Art and Literature call out for writers to write about the injured soldiers since 1990. In November 1988 the Office of Art and Literature was established to collect and compile the artistic and literary works left behind the 8 years of the holy defense war under the management of Morteza Sarhangi and within a decade more than 400 titles of memories, daily notes of the fighters, stories and plays as well as the culture of the front lines. The Cultural Center of the Islamic Republic Army has tried its hands at publishing books in this area since 1982 for cultural and literary development and progress ( Haddad , 1984 P . 24 ) . In addition we can also name the foundation for safe keeping of the war and revolution literature as well as the war unit of the Ministry of Islamic Guidance. In this way there are a lot of books on war and revolution such as Baghe Bloor , 1365 (Glass Garden , 1987) , Rishe Dar Amagh , 1373 ( Deep Roots , 1993 ) , Nakhl Haie Bi Sar , 1363 ( Headless Pam Trees , 1985 ) , Golab Khanom 1994 ( 1374 ) , Eshge Sal Haie Jang , 1373 ( The Love of the War Years , 1994 ) , Ghasedak 1371 , Molaghat Dar Shabe Aftabi 1374 , ( Meeting under the Moon , 1995 ), . . . . . . . . Tarke Haie Derakhte Albaloo 1989 , Zemestane 62 , 1366 , (Winer 1984 , 1988) , Orroj 1985 , (Ascendance , 1985 ) , Khabhaie Talkhe Omran 1992 , DoshanbeHaieAbi Mah 1375 ( 1997 ) , Pole Moa'llagh , 1381 , (Hanging Bridge , 2002 ), Phale Khoon , Safar be Geraie Bist Darejeh , 1375 (1995 ) , Gonjeshkha Bahar Ra Mifahmand , 1376 , ( The Birds Understand the Spring , 1996 ) , Dele Deldadegi , 1377 , (1998 ) , Sholeha Dar Ab ( 13 78 ) , Ermia , 1374 , Helale Penhane Mah , 1377 , and the works of the authors such as Saied Mehdi Shojaei, Firooz Zenoozi Jalali and the others. . . . . . . . . In the 1980s ( i. e. 1360s ) the writers were mainly giving reports on the front lines or they used write about the memories of war and the way their fellow warriors were killed; they have changed the memories or the experiences of the war in to the main subjects of their stories but in the 1980s ( i . e . 1370 s ) , and with the end of the war the majority of the literature of this period has been devoted to the explanation of the return of these fighters to the country from the war fronts. Most of the writers were busy writing the stories of the soldiers who are coming back to their homes where they are facing a new world. The literature of war of which two decades have so far been passed, has seen a lot of changes in literary figures and different subjects and therefore it is very good if some researches are done in this regard from the literary and social points of view. . . . . . . . .
In the thoughtful domain of the literature in the contemporary Iran, if we take some literary works that are written in the beginning of the Islamic revolution and before the beginning of the imposed war for granted and take a careful look at the long and short works of the times of the imposed war and there after, we will see that the majority of the literary works of Iran has been influenced by this war; the authors and the writers of this war are mainly and directly or indirectly affected by this war and phenomenon. To the beginning years of the 1980s ( i. e. 1370s ) more than 1160 short stories have been published on the imposed war in the press whose writers used to be in the war directly or they have experienced the war in away; even those who have observed the war scenes from afar have discussed their feelings and sensations mostly with a pure point of view and sometimes even they took a critical point of view (The Center for Cultural Studies and researches , 1982 (1372 ) . . . . . . . . .

Classification of the War Literature:
The war Literature can be divided in to three classes or groups based on the major characters of the stories , the identity of the martyrs , the ambience dominant on the story , the thinking and the way the final message and the slogan of the story is discussed . . . . . . . . . ( Hanif , Bi Ta : 164 ) .

A : The stories which support a positive point of view . . .
B : The stories which support a negative point of view . . .
C : The stories which support a special point of view . . .

The stories which support a positive point of view see only the positive points of war such as sacrifice , resistance and self – abnegation of the people and they discuss the negative aspects very rarely ; but the stories which support a negative point of view discuss issues such as destruction , subversion, wandering , massacre ass well as the social damages; in this stories the reader is always facing the morose and terrible aspects of the war; the pictures presented are dark , gloomy and dark as well as hard; on the other hand there are another method of looking at the story and that is a third way of looking at the war which is neither positive nor negative rather it is a combination of both of the above mentioned approaches; in this approach both the terrible and destructive aspect and the resistances and sacrifices are told. . . . . .
In The stories which support a positive point of view one can refer to the works such as Pole Moallagh ( Hanging Bridge ) written by Mohammad Reza Bairami; Darreh Jozamian ( Lepers' Valley ) written by Misaghe Amir Fajr; . . . . . . . .Dele Deldadeghi written by Shahriar Mandani Poor , Srood – e – Arvand Rood ( Arvand Rood Anthem ) , written by Manijeh Armin , . . . . . . . . Sorrod – e – Mardan Aftab (The Men of Sun's Anthem ) written by Gholam Reza Aidan , Toloo Dar Maghreb ( Sunrise in the west) written by Ranjbar Gol Mohammadi ; Nakhl Haie Bi Sar (Headless Palm Trees ) written by Ghasem Ali Ferasat and Neshaneh Haie Sobh ( The Signs of the Morning ) written by Ibrahim Hasan Beigi.
The stories which support a negative point of view includes works such as Adab Va Ziarat a work written by Taghi Moddaresi , Bala Tar Az Eshgh (better than Love ) a work written by Pary Mansoori; Sorraia dar Eghma and Zemestan 62 two works written by Esmaeel Fasih; Shabe Malakh a work written by Javad Mojabi, Mohagh a work written by Mansoor Kooshan and Naghahan Sailab ( Suddenly Flood ) a work written by Mehdi Sahabi. . . . . . . . .
The stories which support a special ( third ) point of view include stories such as Baghe Bloor (Glass Garden ) a work written by Mohsen MAkhmal Baf , Khaneh Sefide Mian Do Abi ( Mian Do Abi White House ) a work written by Ahmad Mahmoud , Gonjeshkha Behesht ra Mifahmand (The Birds Understand the Paradise ) a work written by Hassan Bani Ameri and Helale Penhan a work written by Ali Asghar Shirazi.

The Concept of Martyrdom in the War Stories

1 . First group : In the works of the first group , death in the war is considered as a conscious and volunteer election ; it is a death which is regarded as a means to the freedom of the other human beings. These works were written by those young people who believed in this revolution and accepted that this war has been imposed on us. If we do not stand against it and do not resist, then every thing of us is in danger. These works have dealt both with the front line and the back lines. Sometimes both of these spaces are seen in these works. Nakhl Haie Bi Sar ( Headless Palm Trees ) a work written by Ghasem Ali Ferasat , Orroj ( Ascendance ) a work written by Naser Irani , Sorood Mardan Aftab (The Sun's Men ) a work written by Gholam Reza Aidan and Esmail Esmail a work written by Mahmoud Golab Daree, Sorrod Arvand Rood , a work written by Manijeh Armin, Madar Shahadate Farzandet Mobarak ( Mother! Congratulations on the Martyrdom of your Son ) , a work written by Fahimeh Khoda Doost , Faghat be Zzamin Negah Kon ( Just look at the Land ) a work written by Mohammad Reza Kateb are regarded as notable works with positive points of view whose heroes fight for the satisfaction of God; they are in line with the government and revolution as well as the mass of the people and think that in this war death is martyrdom. They think that defending one's country is defending one's territory and one's faith and therefore they have accepted to take part in the war consciously. For example in the Sorrod – e – Arvand Rood or ( Arvand Rood Anthem ) , Akbar is involved in the political issue but he joins the fighters with the start of the war and dies bravely at the end (Armin , 1368 (1989) , 48 ) or in Madar Shahadate Farzandet Mobarak (Mother ! congratulations on the martyrdom of your son ) , Mohsen goes to the war and is killed there. (Khoda Doost . 1368 (1989) : 48 ) . In the novel Faghat Be Zamin Negah Kon ( Just Look at the Ground ) an Iranian soldier is being questioned ; he shows resistance and finally he is volleyed ( Kateb , 1372 ( 1993 ) : 72 ) . In the Nakhlk Haie Bi Sar ( Headless Pal Trees ) Naser , the main character of the story is worried for the death of his neighbors and family members as well as his relatives, is killed in the war . ( Ferasat . 1984 : 2464 ) .
In this regard one can refer to other works such as Tale Baz Yafte ( The Regained Fortune ) written by Masoud Shekoueei , Tarke Haie Derakhte Albaloo written by Akbar Khalili (1368 ( 1989 ) ) , Aineh Shekaste ( Broken Glass ) written by Homa Kalhori and. . . . . . . . .
Also in the works such as Farasooieh Setiz Ha "Beyond the Clashes" written by Koroush Safaei , Cheshm HAieAsk Aloud "Eyes Full of Tear" written by Jalil Pour ( 1364 (1985 ) : 22 ) , Zamin – e – Sookhte (Burnt Land ) Ahmad Mahmoud , Cheshmanam Zendeh Ast ( My Eyes are Still Alive ) written by Hadi Khormali ( ( 1369 (1990 ) : : 110 ) martyrdom is not the main topic of the story but it is a subordinate subject and it leads to make the story seem more perfect. In some works the concept of martyrdom appears as a spiritual effect on the survived people and sometimes this change happens as a change in the character of the people , such as the novel Orooj ( Ascendance ) in which the martyrdom of Hussein , the captain of the local team , affects the relatives and the people of the area especially it is effective on his close friend, Mehdi , and finally it makes him go to the war ( Irani , 1363 ( 1984 ) : 241 ) .
In most of the stories the martyrdom of a person, not only does not lead to its avoidance by the others, rather it is followed as an ethical and behavioral model and his vacant place in war is soon replaced by his friends or relatives ; all these are done to continue his paths. In the novel Zzamin – e – Sookhte (Burnt Land ) , the martyrdom of Khalid's brother in the bombardment of the city creates a kind of spiritual effect . The narrator takes the role of the martyr's brother , even if this is done unconsciously , but it has a moving and dramatic effect ( Mahmoud, 1361 ( 1982 ) : 344 ) .
In the Novel " Oo Ra ke Didam Ziba Shodam " ( I Have Seen Him and I Beatified ) (Arastooei , 1372 (1995 ) : 71 ) a girl named Shahr Zad , in order to take the advantage of the Fighters' quota in the entrance exam of the universities, becomes familiar with an badly injured boy named Abu – Talib and she falls in love with him. Abu – Talib dies and Shahr Zad changes very much. In Toloo Zamin ( The Earth's Sunrise ) written by Ranjbar Gol Mohammadi , the Anti – Revolutionary hoarder who is wholly altered , goes to the war after the martyrdom of his two sons and then he himself dies. In these types of works, the martyrs exhibit an aspect of fighting with one's inner feelings as well as sacrifice and after her an aroma is left behind which makes the ambience aromatic after the deaths of the survived people.
Some stories of the first categories deal with the families of the martyrs; the lack of father or son who has been martyred in the family causes some spiritual and economical problems. Kaveh Bahman in the novel " Jangi ke Bud " ( The War That Was ) ( 1377 ( 1999 ) : 205 ) narrates the story of a family in Khorram shahr whose warm and intimate circle was destroyed by the war. The mother is killed and the pillars of the family and the city are broken.
In some other stories the life of the martyrs' families are narrated. The patience and the fortitude of the family members after the deaths of their beloveds and sometimes their impatience show some aspects of their values. In the novel"Zamin - e – Sookhte " ( Burnt Land ) when Khalid reaches at the body of his dead brother, he takes it over his shoulders and then he runs. Although this reaction shows the uncontrollable reaction of brotherhood but it affects the reader very deeply in his / her emotions. In the novel , " Nakhl Haie Bi Sar " (Headless Palm Trees ) the way that the mother is informed of the death of his son is noticeable. Shahnaz , the daughter of the family is killed then a special resistance forms in the town and the story ends with the recapture of the town i. e. Khorram Shahr. One of the stories that deals with the presentation of family in the absence of the martyr and does so in detail is "Bagh – e – Bloor " (Glass Garden ) written by Mohsen Makhmalbaf. The wife of the martyr remarries thebrother of the martyr and thereafter the news comes to say that the husband is in detention in Iraq and . . . . . . . . .In this novel a few martyrs' families are living in the servant apartment of a confiscated complex which was belonged to an authority in the previous regime and . . . . . . . And in this novel the life of a martyr is subjected to criticism and investigation. . . . . . . ( Makhmal Baf , 1365 ( 1987 ) : 352 ) . In some stories in which change in the characters is the main subject , the way the main characters or the other characters die is not so much of importance rather it is the effect that this martyrdom has on the relatives and friends that is of great importance. In some stories in which somebody is killed, his vacant place is filled by others and the martyrdom of one person means inviting others to resistance , stability and fighting. Sometimes it is only the effect of the ethical dimension of the martyr's death that is the main subject of the story. The long story Ab " Water " by Golam Reza Aidan is the narration of the grandeur of the spirits of three fighters who are dying ( 1370 ( 1993 ) : 47 ) .
In the novel " Toloo dar Sobhe Rooze Digar " (Sunrise in the Morning of the other day ) written by Hussein Erabi , the change in " Maghool Al – Saltanat " has been taken as the main subject. The stories that are written about the prisons and the detention houses are in fact part telling the stories of the events that have been hidden from the war stories; they recount the hard and terrible life in the detention as well as the tortures that the captives suffered; in addition they recounts the martyrdom of the captives which create an interesting and eventful situation in the story ( 1369 ( 1990 ) , : 188 ) . In " Tangeh Zankooha " written by Hussein Behzad, a group of soldiers are held captives and Armin do not confess any word under the tortures; he resists firmly and finally he dies ( 1371 (1991 ) : 77 ) . In the Story " Rooz Haie Toolani " ( Long Days ) , written by Reza Raeesi, the memories of a captive soldier is recounted who has been witness to the tortures that led to the martyrdom of his friends while they were taken as prisoners ( 1370 ( 1990 ) : 165 ) . In the Novel " Faghat Be Zamin Negah Kon " ( Just Look at the Ground ) Written by Mohammad Reza Kateb, the Iraqi major tries to get military information from the Iranian captives by tortures. A young captive resists under the tortures and then an old man comes and finally the Iraqi major orders to kill him ( Kateb , 1372 ( 1994 ) : 72 ) . Saied Yaser Hashtroodi wrote "Khabhaie Talkhe Omran " ( Bitter Dreamsof Omran ) about the detention houses of Iraq based on his interviews with a released captive. " Bazgasht az Marg " ( Return from Death ) written by Abd – Al – Jabbar Asadi Hoi Zian has a subject like the previous one. In these works the deaths of the fighters in the detention houses of the enemy are shown; they are brave and hard deaths.
The most tragic plot of the war stories are those ones in which the family members are waiting for the return of a fighter from the war but he never comes back. It is an endless waiting, a martyr without a tomb, it is an everlasting scene from an unforgettable epical deed. In thenovel " Zan , Jang , Omid " ( Wife , War and Hope ) written by Ahmad Janeh, the story of a woman is recounted whose husband and brother have disappeared in the war ( 1370 ( 1992 ) : 272 ) . In the Novel " Zire Derakhte Al Baloo " ( Under Cherry Tree" Ahmad Akbari recounts the story of the disappearance of Nader and his wife's waiting for him ( Akbari , 1371 ( 1993 ) : 222 , ) .

2 . Group Two :
In these stories with the second way of looking we find those type of stories which have been written with a political approach and therefore war has a very different meaning here. In these types of stories the war is merely a political phenomenon and the participants are merely its victims. In these works the resistances of the people are less considered. In these works due to the unfamiliarity of the authors with the war arenas, it is the city spaces that are considered. In these stories it is the bitter social and sometimes economical as well as . . . . . . aspects of the war that the writers discuss. In these works , those who are killed in the war are some sensational and credulous people who have no understanding of the war and as a result they go to the wars. Of course sometimes necessity or material issues are just excuses to take part in the war and finally being killed in it ; this kind of death is sorrowful and terrible events that can not be compensated for. These works do not enter the war arena and if they enter they are clearly known and the reader who is familiar with war will soon understand that the author is in no way familiar with the war fronts. These writers have dealt with the war in the cities, with the migration of the migrants of war , as well as with the negative consequences of war in the life of the settlers of the cities. These works are bitter, dark, dim and disappointed as well as protest against war. In fact in these works the war has been deviated from its norms. In these works it is only the negative side of the war that is considered and still it is the most negative aspects that are considered.
" Zemestan – e – 62 " (Winter 62 ) and " Sorria Dar Eghma " (Sorraya in Coma ) and " Adab Ziarat " ( The Methods of Pilgrimage ) as well as " Shabe Malakh " written by Javad Mojabi are some examples of the most notable novels which have a negative point of view whose major characters are mainly afraid of death; they are less familiar with martyrdom; they are mainly the people who are ravaging or escaping from it. In these examples the war is not narrated in the war arena rather they are narrated in the in the alleys and the streets of the city; in the bombardment scenes and the terrible scenes are shown. If a character is killed in the war fronts he has no enthusiasm to go to the war or he is sent to war by force and unwillingly or he has other reasons than spiritual and volunteer reasons. For example in the novel " Adab – e – Ziarat " ( The Methods of Pilgrimage ) written by Taghi Moddaresi, Mehrdad Razi goes to the war to see the destructions of Bain Al Nahrain and as well as those Babel and there he is killed ( Modarresi , 1368 ( 1979 ) : 293 ) . In these novels and stories those who are killed without having any intention or enthusiasm for war and resistance are regarded as the victims of the war than national and religious heroes.

3 . Group Three :
The novels such as " Baghe Bloor" ( Glass Garden ) and " Zamin – e – Sookhte "( Burnt Land ) are the examples of the novels which are called in – between novels ; these are the novels which take side neither with those novels which take a positive point of view (most of the novels are as such) nor with those novels which take negative points of view. The fighters choose to fight very consciously and defending their territories, homes as well as their streets and allies are absolutely necessary for them. In addition to finding some inclinations and attention to the destructions and demolitions in the stories in general; there is also possible to find social messages as well as spiritual and physical sympathies in the human beings that are sometimes accompanied by some exaggerations and overstatements. Looking into each of these three types of stories , except for the points of view of the authors indicate this reality that the literature of war is going to find an appropriate position and place for itself in the Islamic society of Iran and it is hoped that the revitalization of our story writing starts from this point .

Conclusion :
Although in the last years some of our story writers' stories in the field of the literature of the holy defense war have passed through the borders and has found some few readers and addressees, still it can be a field that is open for further presentation of war literature and defending literature of our country. But this domain is still full of the un - trodden paths and the steps that have not yet been taken; the distance between what should be done and what has been done is too much and to unbelievable. The literature of war has not yet come to a powerful position that might represent all that has happened in the war. Some of this subject is as great and glorious as the holy defense war and some part of it refers to the capabilities as well as the patience of the literary men in the creation of everlasting works in this field. The propagation and the promotion of the culture of sacrifice and martyrdom in a direct way with the aim of structuring a communal and behavioral model and dictating it on the others, has made many of the stories that are written on the subjects of sacrifice and resistance weak and fragile both in their internal and external dimensions. This group of writers does not consider the complexities of the human spirits and the complexities of the modern world; the great shadows of beliefs have imposed themselves on the ideology and the literary perspectives; they have decreased the value of their literary creations to the degree of an ideological as well as political manifestation. The written works have become weak and weary as well as gloomy works or they were not successful in drawing the attention of a large number of people and readers due to many reasons; some of which are mentioned below:
- lack of powerful intellectual and imaginative powers . . . . .
- staying away from the fictional challenges . . . . .
- lack of deep and multi – level thinking . . . . . .
- un – artistic generalizations . . . .
- inability in clarifying the human suffering with the use of artistic sympathy . . .
- lack of dramatic aspects . . . . . .
One should bear in mind that the social and ethical usefulness should not result in saturating literature and war literature in particular with moral mottos and terrible advices which are clearly bothering. It is true that " ethics " is " the heart of the story " ( Far Khojaste , Bi Ta : 1 – 152 ) . And of course the art that has an eye for ethics will greatly help the efflorescence of the real and pure and humanitarian sensations. But it is more appropriate if this vital item which is in a way confirmation of the real life is inserted in an invisible and steady way in to the mind and inner part of the reader and thereby create very positive behavioral effects on the reader and leave its positive tack on him. The literature of the holy defense war has moved away from the enthusiasm of the war times and it has changed in to a memorial war which can be made use of by any one and at any time. Nowadays it has the opportunity to re – identify the human and special conditions and deal with them in a professional manner and without hurry in order to find a path and way to enter in to the world arena but it necessitates the writers to have a far grasping point of view and try their hands at writing such works very seriously and thereby tolerate the difficulties of the way. In the words of one of the contemporary story writers : " The creation of a story is like the birth of a child ; the mind and the heart of the writer is like the stomach of a mother and they are conceived of the stories by leading a life in the world in which they live. The story is given life from the very beginning in this place so that it reaches the time of birth. Who can claim that this creation is less than the creation of a child? What is created for fun in this world? Nothing and accordingly no short story is created just for fun. (The Foundation for the Islamic Revolution Injured People , 1372 ( 1994 ) : 476 ) . If we accept that " no thinking or idea will remain for ever until it is presented in an artistic way" then we would certainly think of the creation of stories in the field of the holy defense war which astonishes the world.

The works Cited and the Resources:
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3 . Erabi , Hussein . ( 1369 ( 1991 ) . Toloo Dar Sobhi Digar ( Sunrise in the morning of the Other Day ) . Tehran , Moalef .
4 . Akbari , Ahmad . (1371 ( 1992 ) ) . "Zire Derakhte Albaloo " ( Under the Cherry Tree ) , Khorram .
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10 . Jan Gholi , Manijeh . (1378 ( 2000 ) . Dar Jost va Joie Man ( In Searching Me ) . Boniad .
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14 . Jalil Pour , N . (1370 ( 1991 ) ) . “ Khab Haie Talkh – e – Omran ”? (The Bitter Dreams of Omran ) , the office of Literature and Resistance .
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17 . Hassan Zadeh , Farhad , ( 1375 ( 1996 ) ) , Mehman Mahtab , Sarir .
18 . Hagh Shenas , Ali Mohammad , ( 1375 ( 1996 ) ) . Novel and The New Age in Iran , Tehran : Negah No ( New look ) , No . 29 .
19 . Khademi Kolaei , Mehdi . ( Bi Ta ) . Epidemology of the Literary Fiction of the Imposed War , Literary Fiction , No . 111 .
20 . Khanian , Jamshid . ( 1377 ( 1998 ) . “ Koodaki Haie Zamin “ (The Childhood of the Earth”?, Sarir.
21 . Khoda Doost , FAhimeh , ( 1368 ( 1989 ) ) , Madar ! Shahadat Farzand Mobarak ( Mother ! Congratulations on the Death of Your Son ) , Tehran . Ghadiani .
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25 . Raeesi , Reza . ( 1370 ( 1991 ) ) . Rooz Haie Toolani . ( Long Days ) , I. R. I . Army.
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27 . Aidan , Golam Reza . ( 1370 ( 1991 ) ) . AB ( Water ) , Art Associations .
28 . Ferasat . Ghasem Ali . ( 1363 ( 1984 ) ) . “ NAkhl Haie Bi Sar ”? ( Headless Palm Trees ) , Amir Kabir .
29 . Far Khojaste , Hooshang . ( BI TA ) . Sociology of war . Cultural and Scientific Pub . Co .
30 . Ghera’ati , Mohsen . ( 1377 ( 1998 ) ) . Tafsir Al – Noor , Qom : Dar Rah – e – Hagh Pub . Co . Third Eds.
31 . Kateb , Mohammad Reza . ( 1372 ( 1993 ) ) . Faghat Be Zamin Negah Kon (Just Look at the Earth ) , I. R. I. Army .
32 . Moradi , Golam Reza . ( 1375 ( 1996 ) ) . The Picture of Tolstoy in another Mirror . Avaie Shomal Monthly Literary Magazine . No . 163 , April ( Ordibehesht ) .
33 . The Center for Cultural Studies and Researches . ( 1372 ( 1993 ) ) . The outline of the imposed war short story in the Iranian Press . The Ministry Islamic Guidance .
34 . Mahmoud , Ahmad . ( 1361 ( 1982 ) ) . Zamin – e – Sookhte . ( Burnt Earth ) . Nahre No (New Publishing Co . ) .
35 . Makhmal Baf , Mohsen . ( 1365 ( 1986 ) ) . Baghe Bloor ( Glass Garden ) , Berg .
36 . Moddaresi , Taghi . ( 1368 ( 1989 ) ) .Adab – e – Ziarat ( The Mehtods of Pilgrimage ) . Tehran : Niloo Far.
37 . Moazeni , Ali . ( 1373 ( 1994 ) ) . The Collection of the Articles Presented in the Seminar on the War Novels . Tehran .
38 . Mir Abedini , Hassan . ( 1377 ( 1998 ) ) . 100 Years of Short Story Writing In Iran . Tehran .
39 . Notel , Eric . ( 1377 ( 1998 ) ) . The Letter of Research. Seasonal Magazine of Cultural Researches , No . 9 . Nabi Allah Ibrahimi .
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