News ID: 247590
Publish Date: 17 March 2010 - 07:39
The educational centers have a very difficult mission in their duty to educate the people on the basis of major and basic concepts of the religion of Islam. In as much as the concepts of Jihad, martyrdom and sacrifice are some of the religious teachings of Islam, it is necessary to include them in the courses of the schools and universities. These are some of the pre – occupations of the major authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran especially our Supreme Leader. . . . . . In order to achieve and get this aim and goal, this research is intended to present an organized model based on the principles and rules of the science of planning text and Educational materials in order to enrich and strengthen the concept of martyrdom and sacrifice in the process of compilation and implementation of the school and university schedules. The following model has been devised and compiled by the use of analyzing and combining the following three models: A ) Cline School Education model B ) Brown and etal. Model of Educational planning C ) Bloom and etal. Model of Classification of Educational Goals. This research is qualitative and is conducted as a case study one. Interpretational analysis has been used for the analysis and interpretation of the data. Each of the above models has been effective in a way in planning this educational model. Although in our educational system a great deal of educational matters are affected by our text books but the present model has taken all the existing aspects have been taken into consideration in an educational system; it has been investigated and surveyed in a systematic and organized way and with regard to the beginning activities and final acts in an educational process. Although this model is not the most complete and the best model but it can be helpful from the point of view of making the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom operational and it can also be helpful in the educational centers as well as in compilation of and writing text books; it can also prepare the way for the future studies and researches in the field.

Abstract:

The educational centers have a very difficult mission in their duty to educate the people on the basis of major and basic concepts of the religion of Islam. In as much as the concepts of Jihad, martyrdom and sacrifice are some of the religious teachings of Islam, it is necessary to include them in the courses of the schools and universities. These are some of the pre – occupations of the major authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran especially our Supreme Leader. . . . . . In order to achieve and get this aim and goal, this research is intended to present an organized model based on the principles and rules of the science of planning text and Educational materials in order to enrich and strengthen the concept of martyrdom and sacrifice in the process of compilation and implementation of the school and university schedules. The following model has been devised and compiled by the use of analyzing and combining the following three models: A ) Cline School Education model  B ) Brown and etal. Model of Educational planning C ) Bloom and etal. Model of Classification of Educational Goals. This research is qualitative and is conducted as a case study one. Interpretational analysis has been used for the analysis and interpretation of the data. Each of the above models has been effective in a way in planning this educational model. Although in our educational system a great deal of educational matters are affected by our text books but the present model has taken all the existing aspects have been taken into consideration in an educational system; it has been investigated and surveyed in a systematic and organized way and with regard to the beginning activities and final acts in an educational process. Although this model is not the most complete and the best model but it can be helpful from the point of view of making the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom operational and it can also be helpful in the educational centers as well as in compilation of and writing text books; it can also prepare the way for the future studies and researches in the field.  

 

Introduction:

We are observing that there are some researches done every on martyrdom and sacrifice; the purpose of these researches and works is to make the present generation familiar with familiar with the above concepts and to make them more aware of them. In a simple division we can divide the researches conducted and the works written into two categories; in the first part we are observing works that have been conducted generally or in another word they have investigated the general aspect of those concepts; . . . . . these are conducted by those who have themselves been in the war as warrior and they have seen the brevity and great deeds of the warriors directly in those fields or they have been involved in writing on those concepts as professional and expert researchers. These researches and activities are very extensive and their addresses are mostly drawn from among the common people; in writing compiling such researches and works there is no need to making use of the rules and principles of planning educational models and methodologies. . . . . .  The research projects and written works that are categorized in the second part whose real clients are mostly the school student and university students who are learning the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom through books and text books in school or university under the supervision and guidance of the instructors and teachers. Learning does not occur automatically, without plan or educational plans rather it needs complete obedience of the principles and basic rules of sciences of psychology, education and programming as well as teaching paradigms. . . . . . .   Therefore any schedule which aims at educating the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom should be based on the principles and rules of education. And since there is the possibility that the students might not have appropriate and suitable time to learn these concepts after graduation therefore the presented plans in the official educational environments should be so strong and powerful that should lead the students to the understanding and learning the meaning of the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom to prepare the way for making the students enthusiastic to step in this arena so that they appreciate and pay tribute to the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom and dedicate time and energy in any way or by any means. Having the above explanations in to consideration, the present research has been designed and conducted to serve these purposes. . . . . . This means that the present research has tried a lot to plan and compile that kind of curriculum planning in which the current principles and rules of curriculum planning, educational psychology as well as other sciences related to education. Although there are some defects and weaknesses in doing it but it is a plan and plot that can be made use of by the curriculum planners, the authors of the text books and the teachers as well as instructors who are teaching the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom in the teaching classes and educational environments to their learners and students.

 

Stating the Problems:

One of the basic and major missions of the educational and instructional environments and centers is extending the cultural heritages. Cultural heritage includes what has come to us from our ancestors in different aspects  . . . . . ( Shariat Madari , 1384 ) . The epical event of the holy defense times and the martyrdom of thousands of warriors in defending the lands and territories of this wonderful country is now one of the cultural heritages of our country. We, as the inheritors of this great heritage, are responsible to make our greatest efforts to preserve and keep this valuable and worthy heritage. The literary texts and textbooks in the ministry of Education are good opportunities that can be used to keep the memory of the brevity and daring deeds of the warriors and fighters of the holy defense war times. Of course making use of the textbooks and curriculum programs as means to enliven and revitalize the culture of martyrdom and sacrifice is in need of careful and precise educational programs and plans in a way as to keep the memory of the martyrs alive and to keep the spirit of sacrifice and martyrdom in the hearts of the university and school students and to strengthen it. The researches, the works and the studies that are seen regarding the culture of martyrdom and sacrifice are dealing with the frequency of the concepts of martyrdom, sacrifice as well as . . . . . . . as discussed in the text books. Although it is necessary to have an overwhelming knowledge over the statistics and frequencies regarding the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice but in order for the compilation and planning of text books in the school and university levels in a way that they have the highest and the most effective influences it is necessary that the learners change and later their thinking and practical approaches; this needs to make use of and to apply the appropriate models in curriculum planning which are based on the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice. Since some of the text books and educational materials are void of the basic and main principles of the science of curriculum planning the present research aims at combining the following three models and creates a new model in compiling the text books based on the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice. A ) Cline School Education model  B ) Brown and etal. model of Educational planning C ) Bloom and etal. model of Classification of Educational Goals provide this opportunity for the researcher to plan and schedule his model of enriching the culture of martyrdom and sacrifice and making use of them in his curriculum planning for different stages of educational periods. Although this model is formulated on the basis planning and compiling of the official text books and educational materials of the schools and universities, it can also be useful for the organizations and writers who are about planning and compiling the text books and educational materials that are in line with the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice. . . . . .     

 

The Goals of the Research: The present research has been written to enrich and develop the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice in the curriculum schedule of the schools and universities; it aims to fulfill and come to the following results:

1.      to enrich and develop the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice in the curriculum schedule of the schools and universities on the basis of the principles and criteria of curriculum program and the science of programming. . . . .

2.      To introduce and present an educational model in order to strengthen the meaning and concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom with regard to different educational aspects [ 4 ] including: Cognitive [ 5 ] emotional [ 5 ] and psychological - motional [ 7 ] . . . . . . 

 

Research Methodology:

This research is qualitative in kind and is performed as case studies; in the case studies the most important factor is the device for measurement; this means that the researcher collects the data himself or herself and he or she will analyze and interpret it personally. 

 

The means for collecting the data:

The data related to this project have been collected by the use of digital and non – digital libraries and by studying texts and sources as well as the other researches conducted and by investigating the text books that have been written on this special subject.

 

The Method of Analyzing and Interpreting the Data:

There are different methods for analyzing the qualitative data in the case study researches such as interpretative analysis [ 8 ] and structural analysis [ 9 ] and thinking or reflective analysis [ 10 ] [ Renata Tesh 4 . . . 2 ]  In the present research appropriate to the subject of the research the interpretative analysis is used to analyze and interpret the data. Interpretative analysis is a process for the precise and exact analysis of the research data the main purpose of which is to find the constructions, subjects and models that are used to describe and to clarify the subject of the research.

 

Literature of the Research:

There are different and sometimes similar points of view in the literature of the curriculum program regarding the use of educational models in order to plan and compile the text books and resources; hereby I will refer to some of the most important and famous of these points of view. . . . . . 

In his school model Cline ( 1981 ) accounts for 9 data-x-items as the elements of curriculum programs: goals and aims, content, learning activities, the role of the teacher, educational materials, grouping, place, time, measurement and evaluating. 

In their school model Brown and etal. ( 1997 ) have accounted for four major stages in the process of an orderly model of education that are 1. Goals (general, detailed , and behavioral ) 2 . Conditions (learning experiences - instructional and educational groups – and teaching methodologies) 3. Resources ( human resources – educational means and devices , educational environments ) 4. outcome ( evaluating – moderating the plan). 

Bloom and etal. in their famous classification identified the educational goals and aims in three cognitive, emotional and psychological and areas each of which has its own stratifications and consequential order and going to the next step one has to pass the previous stage before. . . . . . 

In a research under the title of "Evaluating the quality of the curriculum schedule" ( 1386 ) Fathi and Shafie made use of the educational study method of Cline to study the curriclum schedule of a major "Education the elders" who are studying to get the M. A. degree. They have identified the weak and strong points of the schedule and they have also suggested some points to increase the qualitative effects of the curriculum schedule of this major. Arefi ( 1384 ) studied the curriculum schedule of Educational management a branch of Education (as a field of study) in the higher education of Iran from the points of view of the university students, experts as well as the employers; the findings of the research show that the existing schedules in B. A. and M. A. as well as Ph. D. does not correspond with the conditions and needs. The necessity of moderating and reviewing the process of the compiling the schedule of the B. A. courses from the points of structure, methodology of education and the way to evaluate the acquired knowledge is more felt than in the curriculum of the M. A. or Ph. D. courses. Akrami ( 1386 ) has investigated and criticized the lacks the text books have from the points of view of needs and necessities of the curriculum schedule in Iran and his findings indicate the existence of special lack in the process of the compiling the curriculum schedule; he believes that the contents of the books and text books should include and pay attention to the scientific and practical and social issues; they should be prepared in a way that they make the youths and youngsters ready for the new age; they should be written on the basis of the Islamic and Iranian methodology of education. . . . . .   In a research under the title of "Chosen Literary Texts of Martyrs and Martyrdom for the curriculum schedule of Educational Office" (1386) Armand has tried to investigate the text books of different educational periods and the resources and reference books in which the concepts of martyrs and martyrdom; he believes that due to the weakness of the existence of the concrete thinking poetry can create positive points of view in the students of primary schools; he believes that the text books and the materials presented there should be in accordance with the thinking levels and needs of the students in the guidance school times as well as in high schools. Of course there are numerous and various researches and research projects conducted on the concepts of martyrdom, martyrdom and sacrifice in the curriculum schedule which are mainly concerned with the conditions at the present time; they have investigated these concepts by the use of descriptive statistical means such as : frequency, percentage of frequency, mean, diagram as well as . . . . . . . . .In some of these researches by investigating the out comes of the studies, the researchers suggests some solutions and suggestions to enrich and improving the culture of sacrifice and martyrdom to be included in the text books without following any special model and paradigm. But the present research by considering the common models and paradigms of education on the world scale and by specific methodology try to present a new point of view regarding planning and compiling the text books based on the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom. It is hoped that this new point of view and approach could have a little role in the growth and flourishing of the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom in the text books. It is hoped that it draws the attention of the authorities and executive personnel of Sacrifice and Martyrdom Conference as well as those who are trying hard to help the growth and flourishing of the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom in our Islamic – Iranian society.

 

The Stages of the Model:

In planning the new educational models the student is the main core and he / she is the main focus of the curriculum schedule. Therefore it is necessary that the text books are planned in a way that the student has the main and the basic role at every point as active people who have enough enthusiasm and enticement to reach the specific and clear objectives. In the present model after investigating and studying the famous educational models, 9 data-x-items of the most basic data-x-items in the curriculum schedule have been identified which are as follow in order:

1.      Choosing and compiling the educational goals . . . . .

2.      The contents of the learning materials . . . . .

3.      Activities and learning experiences. . . . .

4.      The role of the teacher . . . . .

5.      learning materials and resources. . . . .  

6.      educational classification. . . . .

7.      educational places . . . . .

8.      Time of education . . . . .

9.      evaluating and testing . . . . .

What the present model takes as the center of its attention is the solutions and necessities that have to be met in education so that learning occurs at its best and most perfect way. In performing a curriculum program based on the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom, these 9 stages are paid attentions to, then the presented models has got the ability and capability to lead the learners and the educational systems to useful and satisfactory results. In the continuation the educational stages and paths necessary to strengthen and enrich the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom in the curriculum schedule of the educational centers.

Stage 1: Choosing and compiling the educational goals . . . . . .
 Choosing and compiling the educational goals is the first and the foremost stage in the educational process and the teacher or the planner is facing this important and basic question that: In order to achieve what goals, the learners try to learn things?

Paying attention to this question in planning, compiling and teaching the text lets the teacher know what the roles of the goals are. The goals have some uses to some of which we hereby refer:

-         The educational and instructional goals are specified for the experiences, activities, studies as well as the teacher’s and student’s sections.

-         The goals would show the point to which all the educational and instructional activities are pointing to.

-         The goals are always the cause of an everlasting progression and create compatibility and agreement in different aspects.

-         The goals coordinate the efforts and trying of the people.  

-         The goals are the main base for evaluating the progress and development of the learners.

In performing this stage the goal is clear and obvious and this means that the learners should become familiar with the concepts and the real meanings of sacrifice and martyrdom at the end of the educational process. . . . . .  Therefore at this stage we can divide the goals into two general and detailed (behavioral) categories.

General Goals: Every general goal should have a general and dim condition and sometimes it is possible to achieve it after achieving some minor or behavioral goals.

In order to enrich the concept of sacrifice and martyrdom in its general concept we can use this objective.

General Goal: Making the learners familiar with the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom; Minor goal: In as much as the general goal has got an unclear and dim and the minor and behavioral goal should have very clear and obvious condition; in addition it should be measurable. In order to enrich the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom we have to make use of these minor and behavioral goals.

 

Minor and Behavioral Goal:

  1. Describing the reasons why the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom are important.

  2. Why the memory of the martyrs should be kept alive?

  3. The way the concept of sacrifice is used in the daily life

  4. Writing poetry, article, stories and . . . . . . about martyrdom and sacrifice.

  5. Any activity that a learner should do as the basis of his / her learning.

 

Stage 2: The contents to be learnt:

In this stage the planner and the writer of the text book are concerned with this question that: What do the learners learn?

What the learners should learn in order to become familiar with the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom needs the presentation of the effective and influential concepts to help the learners to have a complete and full grasp of the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice in the intended lesson. Of course paying attention to educating a notable volume of the contents leads to beating around the bush; and this leads the students away from the importance of understanding the subjects by the learners which can turn the learning process in this paradigm to a mechanical movement; unfortunately this is seen in some of the text books and resources. In organizing the contents of the text books two issues are of great importance. Extension [ 11 ] and logical consequence [ 12 ]. In ordering and organizing the concept of martyrdom and sacrifice in the text books one should take care of the precedence or the late coming of the curriculum schedule so that the learners could make use of the hierarchies and by passing through logical steps, pass the ladder of learning.

The extension of the contents of the schedule is related to the combination or the horizontal relationship of the subject matters included in the content. . . Therefore in compiling the contents whose main aim is to make the learners familiar with the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice the contents should include the concepts, principles, thoughts and processes as well as the skills related to this concept.

 

Stage Three: Activities or Learning Activities:

The basic question which leads us to select one’s activities useful experiences is that:

How do the learners learn? According to the professional people in the field of education and instruction, activities or learning experiences are those activities in which the learners do in order to achieve educational goals. Activities or learning experiences should be chosen in accordance with the behavioral goals. If the activities or learning experiences are not based on the minor and behavioral goals it will not help to learn the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom as well as the concepts in their consequences. Unfortunately sometimes in the real conditions of education, activities or learning experiences lead to the superficial and seeming experiences such as readings, rewriting as well as memorizing and . . . . . . . . . And therefore the following activities and experiences could have a special role and very influential effects in / on strengthening and enriching the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice as well as the culture of resistance and stability and it could also create enthusiasm among the learners. Speaking about martyr, martyrdom and sacrifice – giving conferences, reading, listening, taking notes and collecting information – speaking – recording – thinking – reporting – writing – and editing and . . . . . . . . . Therefore there are numerous activities or learning experiences that can help about teaching making culture about the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice enrich the curriculum schedule and limiting the learners to some superficial and minor details is a mistake the weak point of which will be clearly and obviously seen in learning and teaching.

 

Stage 4: The role of the teacher

In the fourth stage we are facing this question that how a teacher can simplify the process of learning the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom in the learning classes? Studying the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice is necessary and obligatory for any person but more than any one else the teacher has to be familiar with these concepts. Since the educational institutions took their goals from society and one of the duties of the educational institutions is to make people familiar with the culture of the people in society and especially the culture of martyrdom and sacrifice. In order for the teacher to make the students familiar with these concepts more effectively and therefore he has to have basic and deep researches about martyrdom, martyrs, sacrifice as well as resistance and . . . . . . so that he is able to impart his findings through different and various methods of teaching. The teacher who has the right to teach and educate the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice needs to have an overall knowledge of the following things: the works and the written documents related to the holy defense war period, self – sacrifices and the brevity of the Muslims in the beginnings of the Islam, the sacrifices as well as brevity of the occupied countries in defending their lands, educational psychology and different methods of teaching, taking part in different conferences on the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice, taking part in the educational periods that are held on the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice and along their conducting of their duties.

Stage 5: The Educational Material and Sources

At this stage, the planner, the designer and the teacher are dealing with this question that: With the help of what do the learners try their hands at learning the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice? The answer to this question could result in enriching and making the best use of the educational materials and facilities. Educational material and resources should pay attention to the minor and behavioral goals. If the materials are chosen in this way it can lead to the effective learning. In any way there different data-x-items that influence the determination of the educational materials and resources of which the most important are the minor and behavioral goals. At this stage the teacher has to arrange the materials and resources that he is intended to make use of and before teaching he has to provide these materials. Of course there some other data-x-items that are effective on choosing the educational materials and resources except for the minor and behavioral goals: 1 – the variations in the abilities, interests and in general the backgrounds and information of the learners. 2 – the variation and numbers of the educational goals 3 – the materials and the resources available or that might be available 4 – the economical facilities of the educational institutes. Although the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice are abstract concepts but with regard to the realities as well as the cases that are available in the real world, one can make use of the materials, devices and various facilities and equipments such as light shedding devices and non – shedding light device in teaching and education such as: computer programs – slide projectors – strip film projector – overhead projector – OPEC projector – moving film projector – voice recording – radio – different and various educational tableau – different cameras – films of the holy defense war films – the equipments and the facilities left after the martyrs and the time of the war and war fronts, therefore there are different and various materials that the teacher can make  use of in the teaching classes in order to enrich and strengthen the way of education and increasing the levels of awareness of the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice.  

 

Stage 6: Educational Grouping

In this stage of the model the people taking part in the educational process are dealing with this question that: With whom do the learners try to learn the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice?

Mehr Mohammadi (1381) believes that the major part of the education takes place in a group that includes all the learners. Of course this kind of education usually takes place in the big or very big groups. In teaching the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice we can divide the people with regard to the number of the people taking part in the session and the educational goals in to three groups: 1 – Big groups and very big groups 2 – medium groups 3 – small groups and groups including of one person. Of course determining the exact number of the learners in each of the groups mentioned above is something very difficult and depends on the conditions, the goals behind grouping as well as the interest of those who determine them. As it was mentioned before, one of the most basic data-x-items in choosing teaching and learning groups is the educational goals. Benjamin Bloom and etal. divide educational goals in to three domains: cognitive, emotional, and motion – psychological domains. . . . .

A – Cognitive Domain: This domain relates to the goals whose contents are mainly theoretic and achieving them entails considerable intellectual and reasoning activities. Whenever our text book is related to martyrdom and sacrifice in the cognitive domain one can use big groups and very big groups as well.

B – Emotional Domain: The goals of this domain are mainly concerned with taking a point of view or changing a point of view, method of thinking, supposition as well as the values. Achieving these goals is more difficult than the other goals. Therefore making use of big groups is of no application and therefore in order to achieve the answer to the point as to how much the learners show inclination and interest regarding the concepts, works and the consequences of sacrifice and martyrdom one has to make use of small or medium groups.

 

Psychological – Motional Domains: in this domain some goals are located in the process of achieving them both thinking and physique are both playing roles and, therefore James Brown and etal. are advising to make use of small groups and groups which are composed of one person.

 

Stage 7: The Educational Place:

In this stage we are facing this question that: In what place do the learners are learning the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice?

Most of the times, we think that space is restricted and limited to the classroom; and that all the activities are limited to the activities that are taking place in this four wall place; making use of the classes continuously and all the times makes the process of education and learning less attractive; therefore in order to make it more qualitative and to improve the outcome of educating the concepts of martyrdom and generosity one has to make use of various places. In choosing a place for education the teacher and the instructor should choose the best place to teach to instruct. In the advanced countries method of education the classroom is not regarded as a mere place for education rather by making use of planning and the necessary predictions, they are making use of the other educational places. We do not have access to the appropriate educational places most of the times and therefore we have to make some balances between what we want to have and what we are able to achieve. Some educational spaces that can be in our service for better educating of the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice are hereby mentioned. Auditoriums – classrooms – libraries – learning centers – annual fairs – museums – the houses of the martyrs’ families – the cemetery of the martyrs – and wherever place and location that can bring to our minds some works of martyrs and martyrdom.

 

Stage 8: The time of Educations

In this stage we are facing with this question that: at what time do the learners learn the concept of martyrs and sacrifice? The time of education is one of the 9 data-x-items in the curriculum schedule from the point of view of Francis Cline. This point should be taken in to consideration that at what time the learners should learn the concepts of martyrs and sacrifice. It is not possible to teach everything at any time or in any place. Most of us are not aware of this point that we dedicate learning only to the time that we have in the class room and the time that the students spend in the classroom is the most valuable time and as it is possible to consider other places out of the physical environment of the schools and the universities. This is equally true about the time of educating the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice. One can make use of giving homework and other various activities and make the best use of the time out of the formal educational environments. In planning and compiling the text books and specifying the contents of the lessons, paying attention to the lunar and Hegira calendars in order to have regards for time domain and other different religious and national days as well as the replacement of lessons in the appropriate time conditions that might have the best outcome are also of the great importance.

 

Stage 9: Evaluation and Assessment:

In this stage we are facing this question that: How effective the activities performed in the stages 1 – 8 have been in order to learn the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice? Regarding the ways to evaluate the effects of the activities that have been performed on the progress of the educational learning of the learners, one should say that there are some models the most famous of which is the educational goals of the Bloom and etal. In this classification educational goals are set in three cognitive, emotional and psychological – motional domains. In the cognitive domain usually those goals are included the contents of which are mainly theoretical and its learning needs intellectual and rational activities. The emotional domain is related to the goals whose contents are related to the aspect of creating and changing points of view, the methodology of thinking and in general to the values. In the psychological – motional domain those goals are included the learning of which necessitates the coordination of the nerves and the muscles.        

Although the three known domains are related together, each of them indicates a special kind of situation in the person concerned. The following table shows the changes that happen as a result of fulfilling these goals:

Cognitive domain - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - knowledge

Emotional Domain - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - point of view and insight

Psychological and Motional Domain - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Skills

 

Therefore in evaluating what the learners learnt regarding the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice the teacher has to evaluate and test the students’ knowledge in these three domains. This means that the teacher has to evaluate and asses knowledge, personal and group point of view and personal and group skills of the students by the use of the methods and the tests. Making use of the educational goals of Bloom in evaluating indicate this important message that the planners and the curriculum experts have to predict and compile the activities and texts that make the students ready to learn in all different fields while they are planning to teach concepts such as martyrdom and sacrifice. Therefore paying attention to the educational goals and domains starts from the very beginning steps to the last step.

 

Conclusion:

What is nowadays seen in the educational centers as well as the classrooms about educating the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice is in the theoretical and practical dimensions. Most of the emphases are on presenting the contents of the lessons and evaluating the degree of contents learnt by the use of pen – paper tests which are regarded in the literature of planning and curriculum planning as educational give and take or educational banking. But it can with certainty be said that the process of learning – teaching is more than this activity because there are various and numerous elements that play roles in educations. As it was mentioned in the course of this research the standard elements of a curriculum is divided in to 9 elements in front of each of them there is some questions and directions. In any stage we are facing a variety of activities and educational affairs. Identifying and doing relative actions and performances related to each domain and stage can result in improving and making better of the cognitive, emotional and psychological and motional dimensions of the learners. In the 9 stages of this model I have referred to some educational and instructional activities and actions. Of course the activities and the actions presented here show the paths and processes of an educational process, it makes it possible to enrich and strengthen any concept and subject in an educational system as a suggestion. Regarding the concepts of sacrifice and martyrdom one can teach the concepts of martyrdom and sacrifice by doing a number of activities and actions so that its consequences and its outcomes become a part of the culture of the individuals and the society. Although our path to reach this goal is too long and so difficult but it is not impossible, I hope that this new plan and model be the friend and companions of those people who are intended to promote and increase the culture of martyrdom and sacrifice in the hearts and spirits of the youngsters of the young people of this heroic country.

As it was mentioned we are facing basic and directing question in any stage of the model. Logical and acceptable answers on the basis of facilities and availabilities can help the executive and performing personnel of the plans in the educational environments; it can lead to the successful implementation of the schedule; at the end, a brief summary of the stages and the directing question is presented.

 

Stages

The Elements of Planning

Directing Questions

1

Choosing Educational Goals

To achieve what goals do the learners learn?

2

The Educational Contents

What do the learners learn?

3

Educational or Learning Experiences

How do the learners learn?

 

4

The role of the teacher

How does the teacher facilitate the process of learning – teaching?

5

Learning materials and resources

With the help of what devices and tools do the learners learn?

6

Educational Grouping

With whom do the learners try to learn things?

 

7

Educational Place

In what place do the learners learn?

8

Educational time

At what time do the learners learn?

 

9

Evaluation and assessment

How much the learners do developed their skills?

    The Stages and the Elements of Planning in the model of Enriching and strengthening the Concepts of Martyrdom and Sacrifice

 

The designed table includes two parts that is the stages and the elements of curriculum and the directing questions that lead us to choosing and doing appropriate educational activities. In the body of the article some parts of these activities and actions have been referred to but there is no limitations and restrictions on choosing and doing the activities and other various methods on the part of the educational executers and the people involved in planning are free to act based on their facilities and equipments as well as the existing realities in the educational environments such as schools and universities.

 

Works Cited and the Resources:

-         Armand , Mohammad . ( 138 ) , Chosen Literary Texts on martyrs and martyrdom for the educational programs of the Ministry of education , Novid Shahed Information Base .

-         Arry , Donald – Jacobs , Lucy Chester – Razavieh Asghar ( 138 ) , Research Methodology in Education , Trans . By : VAzgen Sarkesian , Mino Niko and Imam Saeedian , Tehran , The research center for educational assessment and studies .

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