News ID: 224403
Publish Date: 06 October 2009 - 06:47

In & about war

evolution trend of themes used in war playing literature or sacred defense scenarios can be divided into two main parts "themes of plays coinciding with war & plays postwar". Of course current article approaches to themes of printed scenarios in scenario set "Resistance Theater" performed in "festivals of sacred defense theater". Regarding to hold first script writing award & sacred defense theater festival in 1372-73 i.e. approximately 6 months after the end of war, study of playing works in war is not considered in this category. But we will have a quick review to remarkable works in this period in order to make a synoptic review to themes used in playing literature of sacred defense.
A view to sacred defense themes in scenarios before & after 8-year sacred defense

Article abstract:
evolution trend of themes used in war playing literature or sacred defense scenarios can be divided into two main parts "themes of plays coinciding with war & plays postwar". Of course current article approaches to themes of printed scenarios in scenario set "Resistance Theater" performed in "festivals of sacred defense theater". Regarding to hold first script writing award & sacred defense theater festival in 1372-73 i.e. approximately 6 months after the end of war, study of playing works in war is not considered in this category. But we will have a quick review to remarkable works in this period in order to make a synoptic review to themes used in playing literature of sacred defense.
A- Playing literature coinciding with war
Although it is impossible to wholly check the themes of playing works performed 8-year sacred defense in this article, but we will conclude that performed plays in 8-year war can be divided into two main parts having an abstract review to remained news & documents from those times: performed plays in the war" &" some plays about war". In other words, those plays performed by theater groups at the back of war front or playing groups among soldiers in the war & for soldiers and plays being performed for audiences of back of war front about war & soldiers.
Mentioned plays enjoyed various themes depending on time & place condition. But there are some main themes in majority of playing works to this period including approaches as "promotional", "epic" & "exciting" or themes implying "unity & national intention" to resist against the enemy. Of course, this characteristic was necessary for war & in other words it was required for artists of this arena to more imply to exciting aspects of war not to analyze a phenomenon called war due to social & political circumstances of the country.
"Javan arabi" as theater expert; writes in a subject called "a view to war theater & forming sacred defense theater" about first performed plays on war theme: "the first playing reaction to Iraq attack & occupying Iran's ground was a TV play "in the trench" written & directed by Behzad farahani. It was produced early in the war got on the air so fast. It was an exciting play warning about the outcomes of Iran ground' occupation by Iraq false regime to people.
The first scenic play related to Iran & Iraq war was a play called "Mother Khazire" written by Mohamadreza Kolahdoozan performed on the scene in Vahdat hall directed by Hamid Mozafari. It was TV recorded on 1360. It is a story about a woman called Mother Khazire living in the south. Occupiers come into her village. Some of them come into her home commanded by an Iraqi officer. Mother Khazire bakes them some bread poisoning in the breads. She eats the breads too being killed as Iraqi soldiers. It has been written based on a true story."
One of the other considerable works in this period can be pointed to the play "fifth innocent" written & directed by "Reza Saberi" performed in the 2nd Fajr theater festival on 1362 remarkebly welcome & considered. Play story of "fifth innocent" is as follows: "Abbas Zolfaqari", as war photographer; suggests his friend who is an experienced & dominant director to perform his photograph works inspired by researches over his namesake life & a co-surname called "Martyr Abbas Zolfaqari". The Director accepts his proposal due to a new experience in theater arena facing with 5 more Abbas each as a mirror in front of each other…"
Above play with an integrated structure considers promotional, epic & exciting approach applying whole play factors & facilities of the period.
B- Postwar playing literature
It seemed the necessary atmosphere & condition has been provided to have a different view look to the war regardless of promotional & exciting aspects, after war with truce followed by social comfort. But there observes no sign of a different & appropriate approach comparing war years in the playing literature of the period by 1372 holding first period of "sacred defense play writing awards". Of course, the writer cannot precisely claim for that. Because in the first place it is may lead to have such an understanding due to shortage in research news & documents in this issue and in the second place, there is a sign implying on varied themes of war through writing & performing plays like "Ata as defeated commander" written & directed by "Alireza Naderi" in 1371.
Alireza who was one of war generation youth attended in the front too, searches into the injured soldiers & commanders' status in the war with a critical view in the play "Ata as defeated commander":
"Ata is a physically disabled soldier leading the way in the battlefield, already spends time into a sanatorium nothing to do. He is permanently passing into his past &…”?
Although it was held some festivals with war & sacred defense' approach before first period of "sacred defense theater festival & play writing awards"

But it can be searched for a serious, considerable & of course documented approach to varied & different themes of war in the works "sacred defense theater festival & play writing awards".
In the current article, it is implied to general division of writers' favorable themes after referring to documented evidences over selected works in different periods "sacred defense theater festival & play writing awards" including printed plays' text & performed plays' identification in 11 periods of festival in order to present a precise & documented examination about themes used in the works of war play literature.
Below issues were detected as main themes & approaches of mentioned works examining text & story summary of more than 250 written plays selected in "sacred defense theater festival & play writing awards". It is necessary to mention that some of studied works contain a mixture of indicated themes being considered as the main theme of the work.
Promotional & exciting view to the war
As mentioned before these themes related to war time over "promotional & exciting view to the war". But we also witness a view of some writer to this theme of war in some works post war. For example, in the plays "intention sonnet word" written by "Ezatollah Mehravaran" printed in the second volume of "resistance theater" series; "from love anonymous" written by "Mohamadreza Arianfar" printed in the third volume of "resistance theater" series; "the victory of victories" written by "nosratollah Siafi" & "Passenger" written by "masood samiee" performed in the first "sacred defense theater festival", although second theme of above list i.e. sacrifice & resistance story is also taken into consideration but promotional & exciting aspect of the war seems to be the main approach of the writer.
Story of sacrifice, resistance & martyrdom (historical & documented view to the war)
But "Story of sacrifice, resistance & martyrdom" & "documented look to war incidents" was more welcome postwar comparing first approach so that there has been still observed no sign of such an approach from first period of "sacred defense theater festival & play writing awards" to the lasts periods in recent years. For example, in the plays "ash song" written by Ramin mehrabi"; "four memories of war" written by "Masood Samiee"; "Eclipse" written by "Masood Sabah"; "presence breeze" written by "Nader Borhani Marand"; "shadows fall" written by "Abdolhay Shamasi"; "gray as smog" written by "Nejat Mirzaee" presented in the first periods of "sacred defense theater festival & play writing awards" between 1372-73 & "Takra" written by "Mahmoud naghibian"; "Night & Children" written by "Mohsen Goodarzi"; "Shrine Nights" written by "Mohammad Mehdi Khatami"; "Ghasre Shirin" written by "Hosein Shams"; "memories of lost days" written by "Asadollah Asadi"; "Star" written by "Abdolreza Savaedi" all performed in the 10th sacred defense theater festival, there is still a documented view to war period & soldiers showing sacrifice & martyrdom in this 10-year period.
War immigrants & all about refugees' camp
Considering to themes of "immigration & war immigrants" is of course taken into consideration more than its dependent theme i.e. "refugees camp' status" risen by playing condition & position of the work. Immigration usually occurs in war tensed status. There is always dispute between pros & cons of immigration & exile making the work attractive & forming the drama. We observe no remarkable work in the limited works covering "refugees' camp" due to shortage of necessary dramatic factors. We can mention following works over first issue i.e. immigration & exile:
"Palm & Shark' written by Naseh Kamgari; "trumpet flower" written by Mohamadreza Abbasi Amjad" on 1372-73; "A night to morning" written by saeed behroozi"; "Shark" written by Ahmad Moradi"; "Excuser wood wheel" written by Farzad Safdari" & "on the scene written by "Hosein Mokhtari". About second issue i.e. refugees' camp, "sing broken" play written by "Ali Rooeen Tan" can be mentioned.
End of war & new status denial (war survivors' regret)
"End of war & new status denial" theme & also a review to past prosperous memories of war can be a specific theme of our country war status & sacred defense soldiers. Because war & war status basically is disgusted & intolerable in a public view, but special condition, various relationships & customs created in 8-year war caused that the smooth culture & sweet life not only makes it tolerable the war turbulent atmosphere, but enforces many people to attend in such a condition so that majority of soldiers did not tend to stay away from front atmosphere even for a little while to enforce themselves to live in the city. Some of them who helplessly had to go their city longs to see the front. Thus it was completely natural that their mental status will be disordered in postwar making them regret for war sunny days. It is logical & natural to consider such a theme by war playwrights. Although there is a type of introversion, idealism & warmongering in main characters which only understood by those addressees familiar with frontline atmosphere. It is considered as a weak point in such works because their addressees will be limited & special. Some of these works are "sweet smell of war" written by "Abdolreza Hayati"; "Gabriel' feather song" & "most lovely days" written by "Saeed Tashakkori"; "Beyond my dreams" by "Mohammadreza Arianfar majority of them presented in the early periods of "sacred defense theater festival on 1373-74".

Negative side effects & outcomes of war (anti-war effects)
"Negative side effects & outcomes of war" is a most supported theme & of course attractive & in other words filled by dramatic situations taken into consideration from the first period of "sacred defense theater period & play writing awards". This approach created an attractive & dramatic situation due to its complaining aspect to negative trend of war, conflict establishment & appropriate tense in the work both considered by playwrights and welcome by audiences. Of course it was not ineffective the attention & adherence of festival officials & selection assemblies facing with this work. For example, paying inconsiderable attention to "with me like the sea" play written by "Mohammad Javad Kasesaz" in the first period of sacred defense theater festival on 1373 cannot be known ineffective in the approach of other playwrights in the subsequent periods to such a theme. In "with me like the sea" play "Afsane as Amir' wife; a soldier caught by explosion wave & caught by his imaginations from war, first left him due to his mental problems leaving him in his loneliness but she comes back as a quite white angel after a while hoping to get along with Amir". One of the other implying on such a theme is as follows:
"Waiting with narcis smell" written by "Zinat salehpour"; "Pearl" written by "Abdolhay Shamasi"; "Thousand Yusuf Shirt" written by Alireza Hanifi"; "Esmaeel of Esmaeel" written by "Jamshid Khanian"; "God of war" written by "Mohammad Ahmadi"; "endless dialogue of Setare to her mother" written by "Mohammad Charmshir"; "from Alqame to Qoramshahr" written by "mohamadreza Pashangian" and…
Reconstruction of side effects & ruins of war
"Reconstruction of side effects & ruins of war" is a theme generally used in combination with other themes. Some works with reconstruction approach have gone toward slogan avoidance & being ordered so that commitment aspect & value preservation parades for writer more than dramatic aspects in the work. Plays as "Sycamore" written by "Shahram Karami"; "Ivaran" written by "Mohamadreza farhang" & "Skies' hill" a work by the article writer that has been written in this theme performed in the early years of festival.
Purification & search for martyr's body
Though "Purification & search for martyr's body" theme is also generally accompanied by reference to war days & remembrance of past memories. It is considered in the middle years of sacred defense theater festival on 1375 performing a play called "Solitaire" written by "Yaqoob Sedigh jamali". In this play "a soldier is lost accompanied by a group of martyrs. War has been finished. The only sign remained from the martyr being searched for is a "solitaire" probably & a "plaque". The soldier finds the corpse of an Iraqi in one of remained graves apparently accompanying the solitaire of the given martyr".
This theme is followed by plays "green soil" & "komeil Canal" by the writer of the article; "frontline heartache" written by "Abdolreza Hayati" in the subsequent years.
Captivity & all about survivors
Studying "Captivity & all about survivors" may date back to the play "strange morning" written by "Seyyed Mehdi Shojaee" performed in the "third Fajr theater festival" on 1362 before anything. But as mentioned before two years after the end of war, this issue was regarded by public view arriving war survivors to the country, publication of memories & written works from captives' camp incidents and also facing survivors with new status of the country. It can be mentioned the plays "suddenly cold window" written by "Molad Akbarnezhad" performed in the fifth sacred defense theater festival on 1377, "Airport" written by "Morteza Darivand nezhad"; "split moon" written by "mohamadreza Arianfar"; dreamland guest" written by "Chista Yasrebi"; "Ground & earth" written by "Saeed tashakori"; "W as war" written by "Mohamadreza Ataeefar"; "Always permanent" written by "hasan bastani"; "A teacher called Safar" & "Narges memories ring" by the writer of the article about war playwrights involving this theme.
Waiting & all about the lost
Waiting theme has been permanently & for all periods regarded by playwrights with various cultures & in different societies. But waiting theme has been combined with "lost & nameless martyr" in the war play writing arena in our country. The lost soldier issue was regarded after arrival of last group of survivors & uncertainty about the destiny of many soldiers on 1372-73 in the society. Waiting to return of lost soldiers in the form of captive or disabled soldier out of Red Cross statistics was changed to wait for return of martyr body or even a sign from lost soldier in this period. It is still observed in some of lost soldiers' families passing more than two decades from the end of the war.
Waiting issue & theme at first was discussed in the performed plays in the second & third sacred defense theater festival on 1374-75. The given plays are as follows: "like father"; "Ivaran" written by "Mohamadreza Farhang" & "Khatoon Karbala" written by "Zeynab Avazpour". There are also other works on such theme in the successive years as: "love uproar"; woman & a loneliness home"; "sun time mirror" written by Saeed tashakori"; "South Train" written by "Alireza Hanifi"; "Dove" written by "Golbarg Abootorabian"; "Christ price" written by "Esmaeel bayegi".
War generation confrontation with postwar

"Generation confrontation" or clash between the generation present in the war & generation came postwar taking some demands from past is of suitable playing status & situations which was regarded by some war playwrights. Although situation, condition & position of the writer played an important role in confrontation against each party i.e. generation present in the war & postwar generation. Because we rarely witness just view of writer toward both groups each knows itself rightful trying to recover the past & lost right.
One of the works written in such a theme as: "like father" & "Innocent Soil' by the writer of the article; "eighth wheel" written by Alireza Hanifi; "hung pharos glow" written by "Mohammad Koohestani" and so on. It is needed to mention that in majority of these texts, generation confrontation theme has been applied in combination with other themes as the writer main approach.
Comparative view of war with myth, epic & religion
Comparative view of war with myth, epic & religion was one of considerable approaches giving excellent value & richness to war incidents. Iran past enriched culture basically over ancient & epic literature & long precedence in religion attitude causes that any incident & important movement unintentionally leads public view & society minds toward epic, myth or religious incident in the past creating a comparative view toward day situation with an incident in the past. A great incident like exposed war influencing on society ranks for several years is also required that considerable persons & special & reminding incidents of those periods should conform to such past either in the war or after war. Thus it was natural to have such a comparative view into art category especially plays forming some works in war approach. One of the first works written in epic & myth approach is concerned with "one of Bahram' nights" play written by "Sambol Rahimi" on 1375. In this play, a wave-effected soldier finds a close relation between his past & adventures of his life with Bahram Choobineh in search of his internal concerns looking to this common attribute.
Other plays written in this theme is as: "Desert Sun" written by "Nosratollah Siafi"; "Siavash in my narration" written by "Alireza Ghafari'; "and no song sang your loneliness" written by "Fars Bagheri"& "story in story" written by "Akbar Ghahramani".
"Comparative & unification approach of war with religious incidents" especially in Karbala event was a theme considered mostly by several war writers. It was not ineffective to entitle "sacred defense theater festival" to Ashooraian in the third period of festival on 1375. Although previously we observed several works in such approach and Ashooraian title has been chosen due to coincidence of festival with Moharam Days, but it shows that all attentions & tendencies of festival officials leads plays toward Ashooraee compilation of war works. One of the first works in this approach is considered as "like father" play performed in the second sacred defense theater festival on 1374. In this play, "the son of a martyred soldier mournfully singing as Ali Akbar role many years ago faces with his father's heavenly presence on his father coffin. His father talks about a role similar to Honorable Abbas a similar one who he was always longing to act it; knowing his boy as similar singer of Ali Akbar instead of himself."
Other plays in this approach containing:"memory photo" written by Hosein Mohammadi; "little star hidden glow" written by Mohammadreza Bigonah & "Skies Hill".
A view in the visage of opposite frontline
"A view in the visage of opposite frontline" though it has had a imaginary & unreal aspect in many cases but it was one of those approaches mostly regarded due to its different view toward war. One of these works is "Halabche" play written by Mojtaba Shaban on 1375. In this play, An Iraqi colonel pilot decides to suicide due to conscience torture in his mind for Halabche bombardment while he has also killed his family having no hope to live on". In the play "I as Zarare am Ozre Taha" written by Milad Akbarnezhad the same incident occurs:"Zarare is an Iraqi soldier who is not agreed with Iraqi warmongers in his morals & thoughts. Mandatory military service taken him away from his girlfriend makes him rebellious bearing some vulnerable emotions."
Fantasy, poetic, global & beyond reality view
But Fantasy, poetic, global & beyond reality view was less regarded in spite of its obvious difference comparing to other war works in the basis of approach. Reason of such disregard is required to be studied & searched more but it seems special & different view of our society toward the war as sacred defense in one side & lack of dominance in artists to specific expressive language & tools to present such a view toward the war was not ineffective in this inattention & disregard to such themes. Nevertheless, there were some attempts in this issue during past years. "An angel with broken wings" written by Abdolreza hayati on 1374 is considered one of the first works in this issue. In the above play "an angel with broken wings lands into the city in which their people live far from each other into an association looking for an unknown purpose. In fact the angel is a symbol for unknown Basijis whose presence disturbs a family comfort."
Other works written in such theme as:"Rabbi Haza Hejabi" written by Masood Samiee"; "witness about the rancher who said right" written by Milad Akbarnezhad; "A.J-671-905" written by Sharam Noshir.
Due to the importance of such an approach it is necessary to mention that "Fantasy, poetic, global & beyond reality view to the war" is considered as a lost segment in the war theater that if considered, we will certainly witness for a considerable evolution in the themes of war play texts undoubtedly following by attention of addressee to the war theater.

Sayed Hosein Fadaee; writer & director of sacred defense theater
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