News ID: 224397
Publish Date: 06 October 2009 - 06:21

Theater & War Next Together; Review of 8 Years Theater of Sacred Defense (9531-7631)

Dramatic works that are offered in the field of saint defense during initial years of war until year 1988 that are ended by declaring ceasefire can be studied from several aspects, first these kinds of works are mainly dependant on emotional aspects of persons creating them and during different periods either war or after war they lack suitable dramatic structure, exact personification and using from sociologist and psychologist nature. Such works in spite of passing many years from end of war still do not have fundamental coherence.
Dramatic works that are offered in the field of saint defense during initial years of war until year 1988 that are ended by declaring ceasefire can be studied from several aspects, first these kinds of works are mainly dependant on emotional aspects of persons creating them and during different periods either war or after war they lack suitable dramatic structure, exact personification and using from sociologist and psychologist nature. Such works in spite of passing many years from end of war still do not have fundamental coherence.
Wars during history have always been present in life of human beings. Anywhere that human cannot understand issues of life and cannot be agree with his addressees, war and physical fight will be used as final solution. We can conclude from initial to most advanced kinds of wars that the goal of all wars is destruction of human being. Dealing with issues of war and its consequences within framework of research and printing several books are result of dealing with issue of war. Arts in general behavior try to approach themselves to available process in life. What shall we have artistic reflection from issue like war that its only consequence is life and financial damage? Is creating an artistic work in the field of war is not regarded as joint feeling with sinister phenomena of war? Is dealing with effects of war, finding its roots are not regarded as accepting the inevitable condition of war? We shall accept that wars are available in life of human and possibly will be present for ever. But the important point is to find out that how art and war can be present next to each other and art by taking a longer step and by showing destructive consequences of war will be able to prevent from rising and development of war.
Imposed War & Roots of Creating Theater of Saint Defense:
End of summer 1980 with starting unjust attack of army of Iraq to Islamic Republic of Iran a country that was recently freed from 2500 years of kingship dominance, an unwanted war was started against Iran. Unlike expectation of America that assumed that Iran will be surrendered against Iraqi forces during first days of war, the people of Iran by their heart defended from completely armed Iraqi forces that this sincerely defense was continued for 8 years and finally Iraq without possession any part of Iran was force to retreat. One of the main characteristics of imposed war was presence of common people besides armed forces; large groups of people who sincerely defended from their country; such people by depending on their religious beliefs and by unexpected and considerable presence that its sample cannot be found throughout history of world's wars remained a permanent memory. The philosophy of endurance and resistance of Iranian people against army of Iraq and America are exactly the main motives for creation of theater of saint defense. The theater of our war can reveal the devotion morale of ambitious humans who only depended upon divine beliefs and resisted against most advanced weapons of people with empty hand. This kind of belief is basics of War Theater during 8 years of saint defense and time after it.
Short Look at War Theater throughout World:
Basically kind of view point and presence of fighters during 8 years saint defense is completely different with kind of view point and presence of soldiers in different wars of world. War Theater is Iran is completely different with War Theater of world. Morale of hopeless, insane, aggression, nihilism that was reflected in art and society after World War I and World War II is basically different with effects of consequences of war in Iran society. Studying about western human of 20th century, industrialization of societies and effects after World War I and World War II were theme that created theater under influence of war. From first days of war some drama groups were formed in Iran that by their cultural presence they had important role in showing and registering times of saint defense. In western theater the effects of war are mainly revealed in absolute rejection of phenomena called war that its result is creation a kind of recreation and having nihilist thoughts. Styles like Dadaism with leadership of Tzara Tristan, Surrealism theater with leadership of Andrea Breton, Violence theater with leadership of Antonin Artaud , Anarchies theater based on philosophy of Existentialism of Jean Paul Sartre, Facing theater based on mutual effects of Piscator and Brecht Bertolt are samples that each of them are created as a result of war conditions. Meanwhile there are some famous dramatic works in west that is allocated to war. Iranian by Eschyle great Greek writer is among first plays with title of war. Antigone by Sophocles, Iphigenia by Euripides, Robber by Schiller Friedrich, Macbeth & Antony & Cleopatra & Coriolanus by William Shakespeare, Misery and Fear of Third Reich and Man Equals Man, Schweik in World War II, Courage Mother and her Children by Bertlout, epic play writing, Picnic in Battlefield by Fernando Arrabal, Investigation by Peter Weiss, Man Outside by Wolfgang Borchert, Biederman and Fire Raisers by Max Frisch and many other plays are written as a result of war. among works that are offered to theater of Iran we can truly claim that the thing which is goal of war theater in world is not applicable for war theater of Iran during 8 years saint defense. In spite among war theaters of world some works can be found that can be executed in every time and place and some part of it is allocated to theater of world but most of them is a kind of overflow and absolute nihilism that are under effect of west.
Morality Play & Showing Defense from Culture:
Before we deal with Iranian plays that are related to 8 year saint defense we shall have short look to morality play. We can say that morality play is one of the first Iranian plays that are executed about war. although in Iran before Islam and also in Avesta, national and historical epics of Iran there are lots of ancient ceremonies and plays, surely we can say that because of religious view point of morality play and epic of saint defense this issue can be regarded as first war shows. Morality play has root in a great religious event i.e. Karbala uprising that in an unjust war Imam Hossein and his followers they were all martyred in 61 Hegira year. Joint topic and religious nature of morality play with war shows will be explained in religious belief of people, since saint defense of Islamic Republic of Iran against attack of Iraq is reveal of a kind of Belief War, war between good & evil
Short Look at Saint Defense Theater & Dividing Performances:
For studying War Theater it is necessary to have useful recognition of performances and works that are created in this field. Shows that are created about war will be divided into following category:
1- Works that are performed in halls, such works are mainly performed by professional groups, institutes and organizations that are related to war and sometimes are performed by non-professional groups
2- Works that was performed in battlefields, such performances were mainly performed by non-professional groups in battlefield and their goal were recreation of fighters and improving their morale. Themes of such plays were comedy.
Plays that were going to be performed in battlefield had different topics that some of them include:
A) Show with Topic of War:
Surely such works could not have effective role on fighters since fighters themselves were dealing with war in reality. The topic of some these shows were values, martyrdom and innovation of human and in other section the events of Iraqi forces were shown. Among negative points of these shows we can refer to assuming that enemy is weak since showing that enemy is weak and dumb will inevitably raise this question in mind that why we cannot defeat such dumb forces? Most of these shows had severe weakness in structure and performance.
B) Shows with Daily and Social Topics:
Such shows had more effect on improving morale of fighters and even in case they performed with the goal of recreation they could create partial comfort for fighters. Showing social themes since fighters were not present in civil society were interesting for them
C) Comedy Shows
Such shows were performed with the goal of reaction of fighters and making them to laugh that we can say that such shows were more successful than previous kinds of show. Theater groups of schools, universities, institutions and organizations and also free groups performed these shows with goal of making fighter to laugh
Festivals of Saint Defense Theater:
Festival of Sep 8 was first formed in the year 1983 that can be regarded as first festival that deals with of works of saint defense. Among performances that were shown in this festival are Lalehaye Sarafraz, Hadith Eshgh, Hamase Sazan, and Rah. During 4 years of holding festival of Sep 8 that was continued until 1986, tens of other performances with topic of war were shown. Other themes of performances of this festival were ethical, historical, economical, Islamic Revolution, Dealing with Terrorist Groups and Problems of Villages. Golchehragan Basij was among one of the theater festivals that deals with War Theater. This festival that was designed as commemoration of Hossein Fahmideh was started since 1983 and was only held for 3 periods and was ended in the year 1985 for ever. Another festival that was held with topic of saint defense and only continued for 2 years was called Festival of Entrenchment Theater that was held by assistance of Islamic Revolutionary Peace Corps in Kermanshah province. Festival of Fath Theater, Festival of Saint Defense Theater, Festival of Basij Theater are among other festivals that were held during years 1981 and after that at present time only Festival of Saint Defense Theater is still being held. In the year 2007 the 12th period of Festival of Saint Defense was held in Kordestan province. Festivals of Resistance Theater, Capture of Khoramshar are among other festivals that were held locally and at present time are being held throughout Iran as festivals. 12th period of this festival was held since May 18 2009 until May 22 2009 in Abadan and Khoramshar. Many other works of war were offered in other festivals than saint defense festival as well. The most important festival that some parts of it were allocated to war was Nationwide Fajr Festival. There were some other festivals that include topic of war which include Festival of University Students Theater, Festival of Director Theater, and Festival of School Students Theater that meanwhile presence of theater of saint defense in Nationwide Festival of Fajr Theater was very considerable. Nationwide Festival of Fajr Theater started its work in the year 1981. During holding Nationwide Festival of Fajr Theater always some part of it was allocated to works of saint defense. Although until end of year 1987 the number of these works was very high, from that year this festival start descending. Among important plays that were performed during years of holding Nationwide Festival of Fajr Theater we can refer to Again Ghadir, Last Method, My Heaven is Here, Namira, Birds of Shat, Before Explosion, Water & Wind & Soil, Berno Gun, Pioneer Khalil inside of Border.
Performing Professional Theaters:
The first performance about war that was professionally shown by actors of department of show was called Mother Khazireh that was held in Vahdat hall. Topic of this show was about a woman living in village in south of Iran that by attacking Iraqi forces to Ahvaz her life was in danger, Sheikh Osman that was spy of Iraqi forces intended to stimulate people and will make Iraqi forces to come into village and Mother Khazireh honorably by offering poisonous breads to Iraqi commander will kill him and finally she will also eat from those breads and was martyred. Since start of imposed war until accepting resolution more than hundreds of war shows were shown in different halls of Tehran and other provinces. Also several shows were shown in television of Islamic Republic of Iran. But we have to say that in fact numbers of eternal works that will truly reveal values of saint defense are very few. Among some of the most eternal works we can refer to: Rendezvous in Rain, Salaeh the Miller, Fifth Innocent, Last Method, Water & Wind & Soil, Namira, Khalil Pioneer Inside of Border.
By looking at list of performed shows in theater halls of Tehran during year 1981 to 1988 we find out the importance of this issue during this period.
Look at Some Shows of Saint Defense:
Fifth Innocence
The writer and director of this performance is Reza Saberi that is among works which can not be forgotten. Saberi by using suitable executive methods and inference from work of Peter Vice will go battlefields in south of Iran and will show epic of lover of Karbala. Be entrance of Abbas and some pieces of photo he will join to group of actors upon recommendation of director and some parts deal with photos of Abbas, this short look will transfer continuation of show to scenes of war and Reza Saberi intelligibly will go from a outward practice show to atmosphere of battlefields in south of Iran and will design and execute behavior of Iranian lover fighters from back of battlefield to front line battlefield. Although there are some mistakes in text of Fifth Innocence and sometimes some dialogs are just like slogan, performance of Saberi from this show will create different situation from workshop performance to addressee. The main innovative and visual functions of Fifth Innocence show are foresight, intelligence, maximum shortness and fully exact function of objects, tools and suitable atmosphere.
Last Method:
Anoushiravan Arjomand in continuation of method of Reza Saberi wrote the play of Last Method by inferring from performance of Fifth Innocence. In Last Method story of narration will be mixed with battlefields and a follower by continuation of presence at Persian sport club by attending in battlefield of between good & evil will change his life. Although Last Method can not be compared with Fifth Innocence from view point of text and performance, it attempts that by using from form, dance and creating link between Persian sport club as symbol of championship sport from one side and continuation of this magnanimity in scene of battlefield from another side will create a considerable work.
Anoushiravan by transferring scene of Persian sport club to scene of saint defense, continuation of ethical, hero and behavior of sport movement in our country intends to narrate a simple story.

Water, Wind, Soil:
Salman Farsi Salehzehi with performance of water, wind & soil has created one of the most beautiful dramatic works in the field of art of saint defense. This performance is interesting mixture of Iranian traditions and rituals with traditions and rituals of battlefields. Salehzehi with writing this performance became very popular but unfortunately such movement with lack of his presence did not continued in following years. Water, wind, soil is a symbolic performance that its writer and director has clearly showed its components via mixing indices, signs of traditions and rituals of Iran and replacing them with traditions of 8 years saint defense.
The director and writer of this performance is Nematollah Lariyan that is regarded as one of the successful works in the field of theater of saint defense. Writer will offer interesting narration from fight against enemy within framework of intelligent mixture of performing morality play and its continuation in battlefields. The story of play narrates presence of a morality player in battlefields that he narrates continuation of Imam Hossein movement and his followers in Karbala desert. In spite text of this performance is like slogan but finally simple performance of Lariyan and his sincere narration will make this performance very considerable.
Saleh the Miller written by Namour and director of Shaban Darzi with simple and sincere performance, First Narration writtenm by Ahmad Reza Darvish, Rendezvous Show in Rain written by Majid Emami are among other considerable works during this period.

Dramatic works that are offered in the field of saint defense since starting year of war until year 1988 were ended by declaring ceasefire and can be studied from several view points. First such works are mainly depended upon emotional aspects of its creators and during different time periods either during war or after war are lack suitable dramatic structure, exact personification and sociological and psychological usage. Such works by passing many years from saint defense periods could not reach to fundamental coherence. Our saint defense theater at present conditions is mainly depended upon process of festival and we need to conduct research is necessary thus we may not expect to see powerful works in the field of saint defense. Studying and research about 8 years theater of saint defense since starting of war until end of war in the year 1988 can be suitable ground for conducting research and also to offer shortages and weak points of this artistic movement. A kind of research that surely will make able actors and persons in charge to have correct planning for future of theater of saint defense. Finally kind of view point of Iranian Muslim actor and view point and nihilism philosophy of west after World War is completely different. Theater of saint defense is symbol and sign for presence of humans who were ready to devote their life that by their resistance in relation to their great goal created patriotism, martyrdom, rejecting oppression. We hope that our saint defense theater will be able to show a drip of endless sea of greatness and insight of contemporary humans of this country.
1.Dadaism is a movement that formed after the first world war by a number of expatriate artists in 1916 in Europe
2 . ristan Tzara is one of the founders of Dadaism
3. Surealist theatre
4. Andrea Breton, born in 1896, French author
5. Violence theatre
6. Antonin Artaud, French peot and writer
7. Anarchious theatre
8. Existentialism
9. Jean Paul Sartre: born in 1905 french dramatist and founder of existentialism
10. Erwin Piscator german director and designer born in 1893
11. Bertolt Brecht ، german dramatist born in 1898
12. Iranian
13. Eschyle , greek dramatist ( 525-456 bc)
14. Antigone
15. Sophocles
16. Iphigenia
17. Euripides
18. The Robber
19. Friedrich Schiller ØŒgerman dramatist 1805-1859
20. Macbeth
21. Antony and Cleopatra
22. Coriolanus
23. William Shakespeare، english poet and dramatist (1564-1616)

24. Fear and misery of the third Reich
25. Man equals man
26. Schweik in the Second World War
27. Mother courage and her children
28. Bertolht Brecht is one of the industrious dramatists who has worked and created works on the war propaganda
29. Picnic on the battle field
30. Fernando Arrabal. Spanish speaking French writer born in 1932
31. The investigation
32. Peter Weiss romano-french writer 1896
33. The man outside
34. Wolfgang Borchert
35. Biederman and the fire Raisers
36. Max Frisch swiss dramatist born in 1911
37. participant in the first 17 shahrivar theater festival from mashhad
38. participant in the first 17 shahrivar theater festival from khoy
39. participant in the first 17 shahrivar theater festival from kordkoy
40. participant in the first 17 shahrivar theater festival from gorgan
41. participant in the first 17 shahrivar theater festival from khorasan province

42 written and directed by salman farsi saleh zehi
43. written by hamid reza aazam and directed by anooshiravan arjomand
44. written and directed by abdorreza hayati
45. written and directed by nematollah larian
46. written by aazam broudgerdi and directed by amir dejkam
47. written and directed by hosein farrokhi
48. written by mehdi rasouli and directed by naser erfanian
49. written and directed by salman farsi saleh zehi
50.written and directed by ali gholami
51. written and directed by mohamad ahmadi
52 the collective work of the artists of Theater office
53. written and directed by reza saberi

Writer: Hossein Farokhi Student of PhD and Faculty Member of College of Cinema and Theater, Tehran University
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