News ID: 385033
Publish Date: 30 October 2016 - 09:48
Paradox is the main element of dramatic works. And we need two powers opposite each other in order to form any play; the two powers that one of which intends to change the current situation and the other one intends to keep the current situation. Therefore, all of the elements of the play and other elements are influenced by the intention of these two powers. And they develop parallel with these powers. We can observe “Clash”? in other narrative forms too. These other forms of narrative forms are namely myth, legend, story, old story, narrative movie, etc. all of these mentioned narrative forms find identity by getting help from clash and fighting. They change into an attractive possibility for following up an idea and target which is pre-identified by the writer. And they finally achieve a form of development and result. We can find one of the most beautiful forms of paradox in the sentence said by Hazrat Imam Ali [The first imam of the Shiite people] that was written at the beginning of the article. War is one of the outstanding appearances of paradox and clash. What ever the motivation of war is, it benefits from two opposing powers.

Hazrat Imam Ali: Any person whose two days of life are similar is a loser.

Paradox is the main element of dramatic works. And we need two powers opposite each other in order to form any play; the two powers that one of which intends to change the current situation and the other one intends to keep the current situation. Therefore, all of the elements of the play and other elements are influenced by the intention of these two powers. And they develop parallel with these powers. We can observe "Clash”? in other narrative forms too. These other forms of narrative forms are namely myth, legend, story, old story, narrative movie, etc. all of these mentioned narrative forms find identity by getting help from clash and fighting. They change into an attractive possibility for following up an idea and target which is pre-identified by the writer. And they finally achieve a form of development and result. We can find one of the most beautiful forms of paradox in the sentence said by Hazrat Imam Ali [The first imam of the Shiite people] that was written at the beginning of the article. War is one of the outstanding appearances of paradox and clash. What ever the motivation of war is, it benefits from two opposing powers.


Introductory:

Hazrat Imam Ali: Any person whose two days of life are similar is a loser.
Paradox is the main element of dramatic works. And we need two powers opposite each other in order to form any play; the two powers that one of which intends to change the current situation and the other one intends to keep the current situation. Therefore, all of the elements of the play and other elements are influenced by the intention of these two powers. And they develop parallel with these powers.
We can observe "Clash”? in other narrative forms too. These other forms of narrative forms are namely myth, legend, story, old story, narrative movie, etc. all of these mentioned narrative forms find identity by getting help from clash and fighting. They change into an attractive possibility for following up an idea and target which is pre-identified by the writer. And they finally achieve a form of development and result.
We can find one of the most beautiful forms of paradox in the sentence said by Hazrat Imam Ali [The first imam of the Shiite people] that was written at the beginning of the article. War is one of the outstanding appearances of paradox and clash. What ever the motivation of war is, it benefits from two opposing powers.
When studying and reviewing the subject of war in myths and legends, we find out that war has a high position which is deeply noticed by writers such that even the mythical gods were involved in it and encouraged others to get involved in war.
In this respect; "The Whales”? and "The Temple of German Gods”? are the best examples; because their images show combatants who are holding a celebration after a victorious battle. These conqueror combatants are drinking wine in the head bowl of their enemies and eat their body viscera under the sharp look of god of war who is surrounded by the spoils of war, slaves and captives. These conqueror fighters divide share the body viscera of the enemy and wine in the heads of enemy with each other and finally spend their time in the castle of god while being at the peak of joy.
In contrary to peacefulness of the Chinese myths about war and opposition and disagreement of Buddhism Religion with war, the Brahma Religion has expressed about the battles of gods in its books and has spoken about different fairy, daemon and battles of human beings, monkeys and some times other kinds of animals.
A large part of great epic poetry books such as "Ramayana”? is allocated to narration of myths. They are full of description of these wars and battles. Temples of Hindu are full of stones on which the picture of these fights is carved. Gods such as "Indra”?, "Mitra”?, "Varona”?, "Brahma”?, "Vishnu”?, "Shiva”? and the god of "Kali”? are fighting with each other on war chariots.
In the myths of ancient Greek, "Zeus”? and fighter gods such as Titians, daemons and "Tiphee”? fight with each other. "Chronos”? fights with "Ophionee”?. "Mars”? is surrounded by dissension and fear. And "Apollon”? has deadly arrows too.
As a rich book of Greek myths, the "Iliad and Odyssey”? is full of different wars and battles. In those two epical stories, "Achilles”? is like "Rostam”? in the Persian Literature. He passes through 12 adventures instead of 7 adventures of "Rostam”? in the Persian Literature.
He is a commander in the army of "Agamemnon”? and is annoyed of him. Therefore, he witnesses the battle from a far distance. But finally, he steps into the battle field and fights in action. Although this war is the war of "Agamemnon”? with the people of Trojan”? but it is actually the fight between "Zeus”? and "Hera”? his wife.
In this epical story, there are many other wars too. As for "Zeus”?; we can also remind that he first fought with his father by getting help from "Titans”?. Then, when he dethrones his father, he divides existence between his and his sisters and brothers.
When studying the history of plays in great ancient civilizations, we find out the fact that war has been the main element for appearance of myths in different old glorious lands and civilizations. It is the same fact that we face when we study how human was created. It is found in the fight between "Abel”? and "Cain”?, the sons of "Adam”? and "Eve”?.
Now, we study "War”? in the myths that create play in the land of Egypt:
We face with "Calamities of Abidous”? in the Egyptian myth; the calamities which is mainly formed by the element of "War”?. And it becomes dramatic due to creation of a ceremony that praises and honored "Oziris”?, one of the lords in the ancient Egypt.
These mythical adventures were performed in the form of religious ceremonies in Egypt every year. In these religious ceremonies, wars, burying dead people and demonstration of thousands of people and clergymen of Egypt were shown and performed.
In the similar Greek myth - it means "Dionysus”?- "Zeus”? - who is the god of gods and has achieved to this position of god of gods after battle with his father and defeating him - has a child from one of his wives. "Hera”?, his first and main wide envies "Dionysus”?. And finally, following a plot designed by "Hera”?, "Dionysus”? is killed and cut into pieces by "Hacats”?. "Zeus”? finds his cut body and inspires soul in the cut parts of his body. Therefore, he gives life to him again. This mythical thought causes formation of a ceremony that is called "Teragous”? which is the basic root of "Tragedy”?.
The very important objective of the three following myths is dying and becoming alive again. These myths are namely "Calamities of Abidus”? in ancient Egypt, "Dionysus”? in ancient Greece and "Mourning for Siavash”? in Iran. It is like the nature that apparently dies in the winter and becomes alive again in the spring. The apparently died nature becomes alive in order to end to a spring. Isn’t this death - that ends to another life - similar to death of human on earth and his eternal life in the eternal world? Doesn’t it explain the resurrection after death on this world?

1 - "War”? in some dramatic works of the world
1 - 1 - Some plays in the ancient Greece
Meanwhile we pay attention to the Greek theatres we study and focus on existence of "War”? in some of the preliminary plays of Greece.
In the first play that we study it means the outstanding and eternal play of "Tabay Legends”? written in the 5th century BC, the element of "War”? appears in the time between the second and third acts of the play in this trilogy. And we witness the results of that in the powerful pen of "Sophocles”?.
The second work in this trilogy is "Oedipus in Colonus”?. In this part of the trilogy, one of the sons of Oedipus - who intends to fight with his brother - goes to his father - who is in exile - in order to guarantee his victory by the pray of his father. But "Oedipus”? has been bothered by his son due to his unkind behavior in past. Therefore, "Oedipus”? curses his son and sends his son away from him. This way, "Sophocles”? forms the nuclear of "War”? by which he creates his third play that is "Antigone”?.
In the Play "Oedipus in Colonus”?, we witness insistence of "Creon”? on return of "Oedipus”? to "Tabay”? City. The reason of the insistence is the fact that according to prediction of gods the any land in which "Oedipus”? is buried is safe from war and aggression.
But "Oedipus”? does not pay attention to this wish of "Creon”? and sends "Creon”? away from him. And finally, "Oedipus”? is buried in "Colonus”? City that gives asylum to "Oedipus”? and his daughter.
But the results and side effects of "War”? appears in the third play in these series of plays. The Play "Antigone”? starts after finishing of battle between the two brothers (Sons of Oedipus). "Antigone”? disobeys the command of King Creon based on which the dead body of the brother who had attacked "Tabay”? City should have remained on the ground and not buried. She pours soil on the dead body of her brother; because this was not a godly command and it was a selfish command of King Creon. This way and at the end of this action carried out by "Antigone”?, we witness triple deaths of "Antigone”?, "Haemon”? 9The son of King Creon and the fiancé of Antigone) and also the wife of "Creon”?.
In this play, the champion it means "Antigone”? focuses on burying all of the bodies of dead people without considering the fact if they have been innocent or guilty. In contrary to her, we witness the selfish motive of King Creon who gives command without considering gods’ commands. King Creon commands tat the dead body of the aggressor remains on the earth and prevents it to be buried under the ground.
"Iphigenia”? is the name of another play written by "Euripides”? in the ancient Greece. He was a famous and outstanding play writer in the ancient Greece. In this play, the army of Greece has been waiting for a wind to blow in the suitable way for a long time. The army of Greece intends to attack to "Trojan”? City. They want that their ships move by the powerful wind. When there is no wind after a long time, a rumor is spread among people that King Agamemnon should sacrifice his daughter before the god of wind in order that maybe this sacrifice would be accepted and the wind starts to blow. King Agamemnon is aware about the intention of the people who have spread the rumor; but he has no way except accepting this suggestion. His wife complains and says: "You do not think about any thing except your kingdom and throne.”?
Then "Agamemnon”? speaks about his love fore her daughter and says that he has to accept the solution. In this situation, "Iphigenia”? tells her father: "I want to die for Greece.”?
”?War”? and battle field are not directly focused and explained in this play; but like many other plays in this genre, this play focuses on humanitarian and social results and side effects of war and necessity of defending the home land, honor and beliefs as well as nationalist feelings.
By studying these plays, we come to the result that the champion of the play is forced to get involved in war despite being opposed to war. The main character of the play actually is put in the situation in which he or she is forced to get involved in war and fight.
Focusing on common values and feelings that are fixed humanitarian values and feelings that exist on minds and souls of all human beings is the mystery of eternity of these plays and works.
In the other play written by "Euripides”? called "Trojan Women”?, the bitter and ominous side effects of war are pictured in a shocking way. In this play, the writer of the play has focused on some of the common humanitarian feelings such as worry about invasion to the right of defenseless women and children by the enemy, ignoring the feelings f father to his son and etc.
In the Play "Trojan Women”?, slavery and aggression do not end to adults. And the women and children - who stay in the city that is drown in blood and fire - are waiting to be chosen. Very little children are killed in the worst way with the excuse that they would take revenge of their fathers one day in the future. The aggressive forces do not suffice to this action. They force fathers to bury their children with their won hands.
As a matter of fact, fear from such crime causes "Euripides”? to write his play from this point of view and position.
"War”? is not merely condemned in tragedies; but even in the plays of comedy writers such as "Aristophanes”? "War”? is criticized. "Aristophanes”? describes "War”? as a harmful and disastrous phenomenon. He believes that the "Damned Money”? is the main root of "War”?. And he believes that philosophers carry the fault for the fact that people worship money. The philosophers are the people who take the spirit of humility and manliness from people (Citizens). And these philosophers teach people that right is with the person who is more powerful.
Considering the special situation of his era, "Aristophanes”? attacks the ruling system of his time. He has written the Play "Arkanis”? in 415 B.C. in this play, a farmer is not willing to leave his home and family and take refuge to the city any more. And it has been due to several and numerous wars. Therefore, he signs a contract of peace with the enemy (Spart). And at the end of the play, the military commander of the city leaves for the battle field while the farmer is holding a celebration in his private land.
"Iphigenia”? is the name of another play written by "Euripides”? in the ancient Greece. He was a famous and outstanding play writer in the ancient Greece. In this play, the army of Greece has been waiting for a wind to blow in the suitable way for a long time. The army of Greece intends to attack to "Trojan”? City. They want that their ships move by the powerful wind. When there is no wind after a long time, a rumor is spread among people that King Agamemnon should sacrifice his daughter before the god of wind in order that maybe this sacrifice would be accepted and the wind starts to blow. King Agamemnon is aware about the intention of the people who have spread the rumor; but he has no way except accepting this suggestion. His wife complains and says: "You do not think about any thing except your kingdom and throne.”?
Then "Agamemnon”? speaks about his love fore her daughter and says that he has to accept the solution. In this situation, "Iphigenia”? tells her father: "I want to die for Greece.”?
”?War”? and battle field are not directly focused and explained in this play; but like many other plays in this genre, this play focuses on humanitarian and social results and side effects of war and necessity of defending the home land, honor and beliefs as well as nationalist feelings.
By studying these plays, we come to the result that the champion of the play is forced to get involved in war despite being opposed to war. The main character of the play actually is put in the situation in which he or she is forced to get involved in war and fight.
Focusing on common values and feelings that are fixed humanitarian values and feelings that exist on minds and souls of all human beings is the mystery of eternity of these plays and works.
In the other play written by "Euripides”? called "Trojan Women”?, the bitter and ominous side effects of war are pictured in a shocking way. In this play, the writer of the play has focused on some of the common humanitarian feelings such as worry about invasion to the right of defenseless women and children by the enemy, ignoring the feelings f father to his son and etc.
In the Play "Trojan Women”?, slavery and aggression do not end to adults. And the women and children - who stay in the city that is drown in blood and fire - are waiting to be chosen. Very little children are killed in the worst way with the excuse that they would take revenge of their fathers one day in the future. The aggressive forces do not suffice to this action. They force fathers to bury their children with their won hands.
As a matter of fact, fear from such crime causes "Euripides”? to write his play from this point of view and position.
"War”? is not merely condemned in tragedies; but even in the plays of comedy writers such as "Aristophanes”? "War”? is criticized. "Aristophanes”? describes "War”? as a harmful and disastrous phenomenon. He believes that the "Damned Money”? is the main root of "War”?. And he believes that philosophers carry the fault for the fact that people worship money. The philosophers are the people who take the spirit of humility and manliness from people (Citizens). And these philosophers teach people that right is with the person who is more powerful.
Generally speaking; we can some to the result that "War”? has been blamed in these works. "War”? is not actually confirmed in these works. At the same time, straits are created regarding occurrence of war. And these straits harm the humanity and moralities.

1 - 2 - Studying Some of the Plays Written by William Shakespeare
After having a review on the ancient Greece plays - as the pioneer in the theatre of the world - we pause in another important historical period that is called "Renaissance”?. Now, we review and study "War”? in the outstanding and important theatre of England it means the works of "William Shakespeare”? who is the most famous and powerful play writer.
In a few number of his plays, "William Shakespeare”? speaks about humanitarian and social objectives related to "War”? in a very influential way by writing plays about "War”?. In the Play "Macbeth”?, he introduces and describes a commander who seeks power. Under the evil influence of his wife and fortune teller magicians, he murders king Denken when he was slept at his home; the "Denken”? that is the symbol of justice, honesty and appreciation. King Denken had come to Macbeth’s home as a guest; but the play does not end to the first crime. And other crimes are committed too. And finally, he and his wife becomes the victim of their own crimes.
The Play "Macbeth”? speaks about the side effects and results of "War”? too. This play starts with the report of victories of commander of the army - it means "Macbeth”? - to King Denken. The play ends with revengeful attacks of sons of the king against King Macbeth. In this play, "William Shakespeare”? studies and criticizes seeking power and being greedy as killing and disastrous obsessions. And by suitable consequence at the end of the play, "William Shakespeare”? blames being greedy for power and being greedy for every thing.
In order to become familiar with the opinion of "William Shakespeare”? about "War”?, we review parts of "Coriolanus”? Play written by him. Parts of this play have come in the followings:
"The second servant: This way, we achieve a fresh and new world. Peace is useless; the peace time during which irons become rusted and tailors have hot market. And singers are walking all around the places of the city.
The first servant: I prefer war; because it is really superior on peace. It is just like the superiority of day on night. War makes people aware. War is alive and war is full of blessings. War has a new thing at any moment of it. Peace brings heart attack and pause. Peace is sleep, laziness and being deaf and empty of feelings. More than the destruction that "War”? causes for human, peace causes birth of bastards.
The second servant: It is absolutely right. It is just like the fact that we can consider "War”? as an essential crime. Without doubt we should say that peace causes people to behave in immoral ways.
The first servant: Yes, "War”? makes people to hate each other.
The second servant: And why? That is because these people are in less need with each other compared to past. "War”? is my man.”?
From this point of view, we observe a special view about war and noticing it. Being lazy and having no determination are the things that bother "William Shakespeare”? and cause him to blame it.
"William Shakespeare”? describes these manners as the signs of weakness of human and condemns it. "Hamlet”? is the most famous and outstanding work written by "William Shakespeare”?. In this play, "William Shakespeare”? severely criticizes these stopping and preventative manners. Although "War”? is considered as a pale and marginal element in the Play "Hamlet”? but it is considered as the most excellent motive of the Young Hamlet.
The Play "Hamlet”? starts with an atmosphere of preparation for "War”? from the first act and the first words that are said on the stage. It starts with words such as "night”?, "Name of Night”?, "Guardianship”?, "Making guns”? and announcement of occurrence of war between Denmark and Norway. All of these words and elements take our minds to "War”?. The young "Fotinberas”? is the main element of "war”?. He intends to attack to Denmark due to taking revenge of his dead father. But the main speech of the play is another thing. That is why "William Shakespeare”? stops war through a letter written by "Cladius”? - the new king of Denmark - with the grand father of the young "Fotinberas”?.
But "William Shakespeare”? does not omit "War”? from this play in a complete way. Parallel with the important events that happen in the play of "Hamlet”?, "William Shakespeare”? forces "Fotinberas”? to carry out a real action and get control of a very small land - as small as a nut skin which does not have even enough place for burying dead soldiers and people of war. In this play, "Fotinberas”? becomes the element of encouraging the young "Hamlet”? for carrying out practical and real actions. And the young "Hamlet”? whispers with him in his beautiful monologue after he meets with Captain Fotinberas. He whispers with him: "Oh my hands become bloody since now!”?
The "Hamlet”? starts his practical and real actions in fighting with "Claudius”?, the murderer and the people who helped him in this murder.
"William Shakespeare”? has decorated and finished this play of him with the shooting of cannon. This way, "William Shakespeare”? describes "War”? as the element of moving and prevention of stopping from another point of view. In this play, "William Shakespeare”? describes "War”? as an undeniable phenomenon.
Due to limited time for writing this article, we pass through the Renaissance Time and review the plays and theatres which have been produced in the time between the two great World Wars. In this respect, we review the idea that existed in few of plays written by "Bertolt Brecht”?.

1 - 3 - Influence of World War I and World War II on Bertolt Brecht’s Plays

From philosophical point of view, the current century is very terrible and fearful. The definition that is presented about "Human”? and the perspective that is presented before human in the materialistic philosophies are terrible. In the 20th century, spirituality ahs died in West (Fredrich Wilhelm Nietzsche) and human is a creature that has been developed through monkeys (Charles Robert Darwin). And according to "Freud”?, the characteristic of human is made by his inner sexual motive. Human lives in the world in which there is no logic base ruling and all of its phenomena and events are relative (Albert Einstein) and the biggest issue for human is production and distribution of wealth (Karl Heinrich Marx) … such a creature is not the superior of creatures of the world and has no relationship with God. This type of described human does not obey any kind of moral bases. And at any moment, a world destructive war may occur willingly or unwillingly and destroys the earth and the people of the earth at once.”?
Doubt, pessimism and nihilism had shadowed on the thoughts and ideas of western intellectuals and open minded people so that they considered and described life as a thing without value and even as a bitter funny phenomenon.
Creation and formation of "battle Field”? Theatre was one of the influences of these two important world wars. "Battle Field”? Theatre was formed since the time that Austria was conquered by the French Army.
"When the French Army conquered "Proos”? and "Austria”? in 1792, they had brought theatre groups to the battle fields with them too. The theatre of these groups was called "Battle Field Theatre”?. These theatre groups performed very enthusiastically the play of brigands more than any other types of plays.”?
A newly born "Realism”? was formed in Germany. This "realism”? caused increase of using war and military equipments on the theatre stages in order to encourage people to welcome these theatres and attend in these theatre halls. Managers of theatres got help from military garrisons in order to perform their plays. It has been even said that eighty people from a garrison were brought on the stage in order to have an army for performing a theatre.

1 - 1 - 3 - Bertolt Brecht, Anti - War Play Writer

"Bertolt Brecht”? was opposed to pro - emotional theatre. We can refer to propagation tricks of "German’s National Socialist”? Party as the main reason that "Bertolt Brecht”? was against the pro emotional theatre. As for the main elements that caused "Bertolt Brecht”? to be against pro emotional theatre; we can refer to the hot lectures delivered by "Hitler”? that bombarded emotions and feelings of ordinary people and burned the fire of war by relying on the forces of German Army which was formed of the same mentioned ordinary people.
"Bertolt Brecht”? considers and describes "War”? as a business in the Play "Mother Courage and Her Children”?. In this play, "Koraz”? (Mother) is the representative of business people who start war in order to fill their pockets with money; but at the same time, she is a victim too; the victim of profit seeking and power seeking.
IN THE Play "the Trial of Lucullus”?, "Bertolt Brecht”? condemns "War”? too. In this play, he clearly identifies that by condemning "War”?, he means a plundering war not all types of wars.
That shy and thin man who is speaking with accent of the southern people as "Foinchtwanger”?, the German writer has said, is the same thinker who develops a great anger inside him despite being loved in his personal relationships.
Based on what is narrated about the life of "Bertolt Brecht”?, he was not according and coordinated with the formal propagation of the government about the World War I since he was a child. He always complained abo0ut it. That is why he did not accept the claim of sacrificing life in the way of home land in his school comporsition that was under the title of "Death in the Way of Home Land”? and has been ordered by the teacher in order to propagate "Death in the Way of Holy Objective”?. And it was opposite what was expected from him in his composition. In that composition, "Bertolt Brecht”? wrote as the following:
"… It is not a thing except a worthless propagation. Saying goodbye to life is always difficult.”?
Although this school composition caused troubles for "Bertolt Brecht”? but he still insisted on his ideas and continued thinking in that way.
Social situations and occurrence of a world wide great event - it means war - left a great influence on forming character of this thinker who was only 16 years old at that time.
"Bertolt Brecht”? was born at the end of the last century. He was only 16 years old when the World War I started in 1914. at that time, the young "Bertolt Brecht”? was the son of a rich factory owner. He was growing in wealth and comfort. He was educating in "Oxburg”? High School at that time. It was the time that he said his first poems. He entered the faculty of Medical Sciences in 1917. It was only one year passed since he entered the faculty of Medical Sciences when he was dispatched to the battle fields. He was greatly influenced by the scenes he saw by his eyes in the battle fields. "Bertolt Brecht”? felt sort of shy when he saw that much poverty and chaos after war. The poems that "Bertolt Brecht”? said during that period of time show that much sadness and shy. The upset conscience of "Bertolt Brecht”? for a long time was a deep element that caused change of "Bertolt Brecht”? Theatre.
In "Peliad”? Encyclopedia, we read that "Comedy is the human of human”? (1927) that the soldiers of Britain Army show in India and it is a new phase in his change process.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? had a son who was named "Frank”?. He lost his life in the war: "Frank, the son of "Bertolt Brecht”? who was employed in "Ausbourg”? business center became a member of regiment in order to be trained as a parachutist. After passing the training course between the years 1940 and 1942, he was employed to participate in the aerial fight against Britain. On September 2nd 1943, he was transferred to the battle field in the east of the country when he was injured. And he lost his life due to aerial bombardment on November 13th, 1943. He was buried in "Juachov”? Cemetery then.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? had severe anti - war position. In a piece of poem, "Bertolt Brecht”? has written about war as the following:
"And since war did not show a perspective of peace
In the fifth spring of war
The soldier made his decision
And died like a champion”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? was opposed to the World War. And it is stated and confirmed by the whole people who studied "Bertolt Brecht”? and his plays. In this respect, "Bertolt Brecht”? has said: "War shows a kind of strange character. And war teaches human – it is better to say – war explains its economic objectives in a very clear way. It means that war merely seeks help from financial issues. It speaks about sanction in order to expand dominance on markets. By providing war equipments, it reduces the raw materials. And the ideological secrecy has become so weak that only violence steps into the field in order to achieve real progress.
"Bertolt Brecht”? was born at the end of the last century. He was only 16 years old when the World War I started in 1914. at that time, the young "Bertolt Brecht”? was the son of a rich factory owner. He was growing in wealth and comfort. He was educating in "Oxburg”? High School at that time. It was the time that he said his first poems. He entered the faculty of Medical Sciences in 1917. It was only one year passed since he entered the faculty of Medical Sciences when he was dispatched to the battle fields. He was greatly influenced by the scenes he saw by his eyes in the battle fields. "Bertolt Brecht”? felt sort of shy when he saw that much poverty and chaos after war. The poems that "Bertolt Brecht”? said during that period of time show that much sadness and shy. The upset conscience of "Bertolt Brecht”? for a long time was a deep element that caused change of "Bertolt Brecht”? Theatre.
In "Peliad”? Encyclopedia, we read that "Comedy is the human of human”? (1927) that the soldiers of Britain Army show in India and it is a new phase in his change process.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? had a son who was named "Frank”?. He lost his life in the war: "Frank, the son of "Bertolt Brecht”? who was employed in "Ausburg”? business center became a member of regiment in order to be trained as a parachutist. After passing the training course between the years 1940 and 1942, he was employed to participate in the aerial fight against Britain. On September 2nd 1943, he was transferred to the battle field in the east of the country when he was injured. And he lost his life due to aerial bombardment on November 13th, 1943. He was buried in "Juachov”? Cemetery then.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? had severe anti - war position.
In another piece of writing, "Bertolt Brecht”? has written as the following:
"Discovering this truth what truth should be said is not that easy. For example, violent people parade on streets. In addition to that, every one knows that the domestic war - that is started by the most terrible means - may change into a foreign war since today to tomorrow. And it may leave nothing except ruined place out of our continent.”?
The view of "Bertolt Brecht”? about "War”? is a special type of view. He blames the World War that had been formed based on the greed of "Hitler”? and relied on the greed of earning wealth by the western rich people. ""Bertolt Brecht”? spoke about the reality that war is a kind of business for business men and death and misery for the ordinary and miserable people.”?
In the contrary, "Bertolt Brecht”? denies being inattentiveness about cruelty and no uprising against the cruelty. "The biggest misery of human is losing dare for uprising against the cruelty; the moments that you spend in the dark prison and you suddenly see that the cruelty does not cause you to revolt any more are very bad moments.”?
As for "War”?, "Bertolt Brecht”? has written in another piece of writing as the following:
"War does not merely bring suffering with it as a souvenir; but war has lack of capabilities along with it too. It is for the reason that we learn from them.”?
He complained about the situation that ruled on the Hitler Germany. He has explained his complaint about the irresponsible art as the following: "The destructive and unrestrained literature absolutely shows the unrestrained society of west.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? is aware of the difference between the wars that are for defending honor and the wars that are started due to greed for getting wealth: "Is the intention to leave and forget the pieties and moralities? No, it is intended that piety and morality are not the only things that are practical and functional in a bad society. We must take the root of badness in order that human is not captive and is not changed into the means and equipments of war. Wisdom should not bring misery with it. And telling the truth should not be considered as sin. And the honesty should not cause death of people.”?
The Play "Drums in the Night”? - that was performed in Munich in 1922 and was highly welcomed by the audiences - is the reflection of revolt of "Bertolt Brecht”? against the war that the western rulers imposed on the world via Hitler.
"The return of a soldier who is considered as a dead person and after a period of time of grief for him, they have not naturally considered any right for him. He sees his fiancée beside another man. He revolts against the ungrateful and blind society for a short time. But he returns from the way immediately after finding his fiancée. He returns to build his home in a place that walls of life of human is destroyed by a wind. He decides to stay alive.”?
In the Play "Baal”?, "Bertolt Brecht”? has written bout a lazy mechanic and unrestrained poet who sings and plays guitar in bars. Although he is bon vivant and has no particular plan for his life but he is alone. And this feeling of loneliness never leaves him. By writing the Play "Baal”?, "Bertolt Brecht”? shouts his humiliating scream on his society.
In this play, "Bertolt Brecht”? has spoken about the distinctive power which does not know any limitation: "A poetic violence against the cruel and enemy - like world. Pessimism and unrestraint of this work reflects the chaotic life during the post - war time.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? complains the unlimited and unconditional movements of fascism. How could a thinker like "Bertolt Brecht”? keep silence against the unlimited suppression of intellectuals and open - minded people?
"Approximately two thousand writers were confined and approximately one thousand and five hundred people did not remain alive. These people died in obligatory labor camps and prisons.”?
In an article under the title of "Misery is a bad teacher”? - which was published in 1954 - "Bertolt Brecht”? has written about war as the following:
"War does not merely bring misery with it; but war brings lack of capabilities with it and we should learn from them.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? found out the danger of existence of the Nazis for him and other thinkers - who were opposed the Nazis and the war - more seriously in 1933. He felt this unsafe situation since the time that the parliament of Germany was put into fire on February 27th, 1933. Hitler had issued the command for putting fire on the Germany parliament. At that time, "Bertolt Brecht”? found out that his home land could not be a safe place for him any more.
The next day, "Bertolt Brecht”? along with his wife and a number of his friends left Germany for Switzerland. On the tenth day of the same year, all copies of "Bertolt Brecht”? works were put into fire in front of the City Opera Hall.”?
The situation that ruled on Germany at that period of time caused "Bertolt Brecht”? to clarify people’s minds and give information to them by getting help from his thought and pen. "Bertolt Brecht”? aimed at giving information to the audiences. He believed that art should be able to give information to the audiences about the society where the audiences live in; unless art can not do any thing.
"If there are people that knowing their miseries and difficulties merely make them hopeless and look for mottos and orders, then the artist can not do any thing for them. The audience [Person] who considers "War”? and "captivity”? as an undeniable destiny by watching the Play "Mother Courage and Her Children”? and is waiting that Mother Courage appears and shows his a way has lost his freedom of thinking and power of making decision and determination in a way. Artist should blow spirit in this freedom and determination and make them alive. The artist should not influence on the audience in other way or method. If the artist is supposed to show a way in any situation and by using any tricks what will be left for freedom, innovation and thinking of the audience?”?
In order to make his audiences to think and emphasize on the behaviors that have become normal for him, "Bertolt Brecht”? uses allegory and legends in order that the audience is surprised by the events that have become ordinary and normal among him. "Change of ordinary German person into the means and equipments of war and murder by Hitler appeared normal for the people of Germany.
The people of Germany had got used to it little by little so that no event was surprising for them. But it seemd strange for them that "Gali Gi”?, the Irish merchant changed into a blood thirsty soldier of Britain Army in the border of Tibet. And it could open the eyes of the audiences to the terrible daily habits. In addition to that, this method gave the opportunity to "Bertolt Brecht”? that he mixes poem with reality in the most pleasant way.
The influence of the two World Wars has been known in appearance of "Absurd”? Art. But it is a reality that "Epic”? Theatre was formed during the World war while "Nihilism”? was formed after the war and was added to the previous schools of theatre. "Epic”? style of theatre was recorded with the name of "Bertolt Brecht”?. "Bertolt Brecht”? was injured and damaged by war. He spent most of his life time during the years of war that was recorded under the name of "Hitler”?.
"Bertolt Brecht”? left a heritage for people by which he influences on thoughts of people by complaining to war and revolt against it. This way, he wanted to leave a heritage that would be an alert for the people who were willing to war. He wanted these people interested in war do not show interest in war any more and do not cause the global society to move towards killing, destruction and elimination of humanitarian values. From this point of view, "Epic”? Theatre reaches to a common point with the Absurd Art.
"If there are people that knowing their miseries and difficulties merely make them hopeless and look for mottos and orders, then the artist can not do any thing for them. The audience [Person] who considers "War”? and "captivity”? as an undeniable destiny by watching the Play "Mother Courage and Her Children”? and is waiting that Mother Courage appears and shows his a way has lost his freedom of thinking and power of making decision and determination in a way. Artist should blow spirit in this freedom and determination and make them alive. The artist should not influence on the audience in other way or method. If the artist is supposed to show a way in any situation and by using any tricks what will be left for freedom, innovation and thinking of the audience?”?
In contrary to what some people understand about the Absurd Art, this school of art does not speak about nihilism of life; but - by attaching no value to selfish imperfection of people - the Absurd Art emphasizes on the point that "there are still leaves remained on the tree.”?
Therefore, there is still hope and we should be hopeful.

1 - 2 - 3 - The Play "The Caucasian Chalk Circle”?

"The Caucasian Chalk circle”? is the name of another play written by "Bertolt Brecht”? which is about war, homelessness and wandering. The story of this play goes back to occurrence of war in one of the cities in Caucasus.
The wife of the ruler of the region - who merely thinks about saving her life when running away from the fight region - forgets her little child and leaves the child there. "Groche”?, the servant of the ruler’s kitchen takes Michel out of the city and takes care of him in order that he is not arrested by the soldiers. Stay of "Groche”? with the child in his brother’s house causes rumors and accusations that cause a large number of problems for "Groche”?.
A part of story of story of this play is the story of life of "Bertolt Brecht”?.
Barbara”?, the two - year old daughter of "Bertolt Brecht”? was suddenly in danger of being taken as a hostage. "Michel”? is actually the same "Barbara”?. "Barbara”? was saved by a British worker in a miraculous way. We can say that the British worker is the same "Groche”? in this play. And then Helen Wigel (The wife of "Bertolt Brecht”?) and "Barbara return to "Bertolt Brecht”?.
During the years of World War I and World War II, there was a severe fight between the two sectors of rich people and poor people in Germany.
The Play of "The Caucasian Chalk circle”? was written between the years 1944 and 1945. During occurrence of the events of the play, we witness administering justice (From its special kind). And it is the same piety and morality that "Bertolt Brecht”? seeks in all of his plays.
The fight between deprived sectors of the society and the rich sectors of the society is obviously observable in the whole play; the fight that has influenced not only on foreign wars but also on domestic war. This play written by "Bertolt Brecht”? does not have a political nature; but it benefits from a kind of general humanism.
The Play "The Caucasian Chalk Circle”? has been written about "Woman”?; women like "Mother”? in the role of "Plagger Passora”? who has acted like a man and forgot womanly properties like feeling compassion and pity for death of their children and …. These women claim that they should not be weak in order to fight and enter the world of men; but they should fight and fight.
This play also announces that there are many children who were separated from their real mothers and or were killed or even taken to other borders. The characters in this play suffer from disharmony between logic and emotions. As for this play, "Root Berlav”? has said: "Days are coming in which only people with torn clothes are safe. The poor child should be afraid of hunger and the rich child should be afraid of the hungry people. "Groche”? has to take off the clothes of "Michel”? that are luxurious in order that this child is not known. Human is afraid of changes of upper class people.”?
Self sacrifice of women for protecting pieties and moralities during occurrence of war is another interesting point. "Groche”? not only offers refuge to the child but also "groche”? carries out many activities in order to save the child’s life. As for these activities, we can refer to breaking head of a soldier. This is an action that may cost his life. "Groche”? also sings lullabies for the child that is one of the ancient German poems. It shows the attention of "Bertolt Brecht”? to the deep values of his country that have roots in past.


1 - 3 - 3 - "Mother Courage and Her Children”?

The Play "Mother Courage and Her Children”? has been written by "Bertolt Brecht”? in 1938. This play is about destructive effects of war on the behaviors of humans. This play is a tragedy about a "Woman, Mother and Business Woman”?. At the beginning of the play, a woman enters the stage on a cart that is pulled by "Iliv”? and "Schwitzerkar”?. They are her two sons. The woman has been called as "mother Courage”? during the war. She intends to prevent her sons to join the military service. And she intends to take advantage of war for the profit of her, her two sons and her dumb daughter whose name is "Catherine”?.
She buys the goods of people who are running away of war with low prices. Then she sells these goods to others, especially military forces with expensive price. Despite her efforts for preventing her sons to join military service, her older son, "Iliv”? is cheated by the corporal and joins the soldiers. Three years later, her second son "Schwitzerkar”? joins the fighter Protestants.
In continuation of the story, "Catherine”?, her daughter starts to help people and children harmed by the war. "Iliv”? was accused by "Fernando”? and people and sentenced to death. "Schwitzerkar”? was arrested by the Catholic forces. The mother paid a little money to the catholic forces in order to save her son’s life. But it did not save him. Then, he was killed too. And finally, "Mother Courage”? and "Catherine”? go to the village. And in continuation of the story, "mother Courage”? goes to the city and "Catherine”? stays in the village. She helps people of the village and plays drum and tries to sing different poems. She mostly sings war songs. "Mother Courage”? faces with her daughter’s de3ad body when she returns to the village. Then she sings lullabies for her daughter and pulls her cart by her own. She goes to continue her business.
"Mother Courage”? is the representative of all humiliated people who do not know and do not have enough information about war. And the very little profit that is gained through war or the equipments of war make them very satisfied and happy.
But in fact, they witness the death of their children and destruction of their country. As a matter of fact, the character of "Mother Courage”? is an anti - piety character. It means that she is aware in one way. And by starting war, she increases her wealth and profit. But from the other side, she has to lose her children unwillingly in the way of getting materialistic profits.
""Bertolt Brecht”? believed that the audiences will get angry by watching the Play "mother Courage and Her children”?; but in contrary to that, the audiences felt sympathy with "Motehr Courage”? in this play. The audiences laughed with her and cried with her. "Bertolt Brecht”? got angry and tries to make changes in his play.”?
"Bertolt Brecht”? did not merely intend to show the effect of war on the life of poor and miserable people in the Play "Mother Courage and Her Children”?; but he has made his efforts to say how "War”? changes people in the way that is not considered as piety any more. "Bertolt Brecht”? intended to show how people play basic role in identifying their destiny.
By writing and performing this play, maybe "Bertolt Brecht”? intended to give the hope to the audiences that "you can choose your way freely”?. This is the same theory that "Bertolt Brecht”? expresses in his "Epic”? Theatre. In this play, death and life are placed opposite each other. A large number of people are killed in the war; but life still goes on.
In this play, "Bertolt Brecht”? also pays attention to the fact that being man or woman, being in what range of age and being in different economic and social situation do not matter when the war happens. In any situation that a person is, he or she can fight for defending what he or she wants.
As another important point; I can refer to the attention of "Bertolt Brecht”? to the higher price that women pay compared to men when the war starts. There are many girls who are kidnapped or imprisoned during the war. And there are many women who are raped during the war. Meanwhile, there are many girls who throw them into wells in order escape from being raped. And there are many women who witness losing their children and husbands and men.
Women in the plays written by "Bertolt Brecht”? are ordinary and normal people who get involved in the war unwillingly. But many of them like the character of "mother”? in the Play "mother Courage and Her Children”? lose and forget their womanly characteristics during passing of time such that this mother does not cry in front of her children when her children are dead. She does not feel pity for her children and does not show weakness. Some of the characters of "Bertolt Brecht”? plays such as "Simone”? in the Play "The Visions of Simone Machard”? show more courage. They destroy the walls that have been built for inspection. As a matter of fact; women’s duties are not limited to cooking and taking care of children and farming in the farm during the war; but women of war time fight by using their ideas, beliefs and actions. There may be some people who do not use guns; but they fight using their womanly tricks and characteristics in order to obtain what they want to get.

1 - 4 - 3 - The Play "The Mother”?

The play "The Mother”? has been written by "Bertolt Brecht”? during the eyars 1930 and 1932. This play is an adaptation of the Novel "The Mother”? written by "Maxim Gorky”?.
In this play; "Plage Avlasoda”? is the mother of a worker whose name is "Paul”?. She lives in Russia in the worst economic situation and is very poor. The mother is worried that her son is absorbed by "Labor Movement”?. And she is worried that this action of her son causes him to lose his job. Then she finds out that the friends of her son come to their house in order to write and distribute announcements. When she finds out that her son is responsible for distributing announcements, she insists to put the announcements in her food basket and distributes them among workers.
In contrary to the imagination of the mother, the demonstration ends with blood and killing people by the police officers. The mother - who has participated in the demonstration along with other families - takes the flag that has fallen on the ground. She promises one of the workers - who have been shot by bullet - to hold the flag.
"Paul”? is arrested and the mother goes to the house of a teacher via friends of "Paul”?. The teacher does not know any thing about politics and does not want to be involved in political issues and activities. The mother learns writing and reading the words that she needs. By teaching to the neighbors, the house of the teacher changes into a political center. And finally, the teacher joins the revolutionary people under the influence of the mother. Then, the teacher pulls down the picture of "Czar”? that was on the wall of teacher’s home.
Now, the mother acts like one of the leaders of "Labor Movement”?. "Paul”? intends to run away from prison and go to Finland; but he was arrested and was executed by a fire squad. The mother is determined to continue her political activities. And she did not give up even by start of war. She starts to provide people with information about this movement.
The preliminary presence of the mother in the fight is not an aware presence. First, she started fighting because of saving her son’s life and her home; but after passing time, her position from an emotional and illiterate woman changes into an aware woman who knows what she wants. As Dr "Ote Erhart”? has said in his book "Womanly methods mostly function better and slower than manly methods.”?
The mother tries to forget blindly imitation and step into the action phase by gaining information and knowledge. At the beginning, saving her son’s life was the most important issue for her. Then she tries to change her. And by getting good and better, she achieves a kind of self confidence.
Since then, she gains the required and necessary capability for an independent organizing in order to fight. And it is the thing that was meant by "Bertolt Brecht”?. "Bertolt Brecht”? believes that people benefit from necessary capacity for being changed in a high level. But it depends on the fact that these people show the necessary and required readiness and step into the phase of action. In the first act of the Play "The Mother”?, we read that "Paul”? says: "Speak more slowly please! It is better that my mother does not hear us speaking. I have not told her any thing yet. She is not young any more. She is not useful for any activity any more.”?
In this play; "Plage Avlasoda”? is the mother of a worker whose name is "Paul”?. She lives in Russia in the worst economic situation and is very poor. The mother is worried that her son is absorbed by "Labor Movement”?. And she is worried that this action of her son causes him to lose his job. Then she finds out that the friends of her son come to their house in order to write and distribute announcements. When she finds out that her son is responsible for distributing announcements, she insists to put the announcements in her food basket and distributes them among workers.
In contrary to the imagination of the mother, the demonstration ends with blood and killing people by the police officers. The mother - who has participated in the demonstration along with other families - takes the flag that has fallen on the ground. She promises one of the workers - who have been shot by bullet - to hold the flag.
"Paul”? is arrested and the mother goes to the house of a teacher via friends of "Paul”?. The teacher does not know any thing about politics and does not want to be involved in political issues and activities. The mother learns writing and reading the words that she needs. By teaching to the neighbors, the house of the teacher changes into a political center. And finally, the teacher joins the revolutionary people under the influence of the mother. Then, the teacher pulls down the picture of "Czar”? that was on the wall of teacher’s home.
Now, the mother acts like one of the leaders of "Labor Movement”?. "Paul”? intends to run away from prison and go to Finland; but he was arrested and was executed by a fire squad. The mother is determined to continue her political activities. And she did not give up even by start of war. She starts to provide people with information about this movement.
The preliminary presence of the mother in the fight is not an aware presence. First, she started fighting because of saving her son’s life and her home; but after passing time, her position from an emotional and illiterate woman changes into an aware woman who knows what she wants. As Dr "Ote Erhart”? has said in his book "Womanly methods mostly function better and slower than manly methods.”?
The mother tries to forget blindly imitation and step into the action phase by gaining information and knowledge. At the beginning, saving her son’s life was the most important issue for her. Then she tries to change her. And by getting good and better, she achieves a kind of self confidence.
Since then, she gains the required and necessary capability for an independent organizing in order to fight. And it is the thing that was meant by "Bertolt Brecht”?. "Bertolt Brecht”? believes that people benefit from necessary capacity for being changed in a high level. But it depends on the fact that these people show the necessary and required readiness and step into the phase of action. In the first act of the Play "The Mother”?, we read that "Paul”? says: "Speak more slowly please! It is better that my mother does not hear us speaking. I have not told her any thing yet. She is not young any more. She is not useful for any activity any more.”?
But at the end of this play and due to the deep changes that the mother has accepted, we see her in a situation higher than "Paul”? and his friends.

1 - 5 - 3 - The Play "Senora Carrar’s Rifles”?

The Play "Senora Carrar’s rifles”? has been written in 1937. Ithis play is the story of a Spanish woman whose name is "Carrar”?. She has lost her husband in the domestic wars of Spain. She lives with her two sons "Joan”? and "Jose”? in poverty. "Carrar”? is determined to keep her sons for her with any price. She does not let her sons to join the revolutionary and rebellious people. She considers her as a neutral person. She says: "General Franco (One of the military dictators of Spain) and his companions do not bother the people who do not fight against him.”?
"Carrar”? has hidden the rifle of her husband at her home. She does not give that rifle to any person.
Even at the night when the port people have gathered to dispatch their young sons to the battle fields, she sends her older son "Joan”? for fishing. This way, she wanted her older son not to know about this gathering. Finally and after occurrence of many events, the women of the village bring the dead body of "Joan”?. It was while "Carrar”? still resisted and was not ready to give her rifle. When "Carrar”? sees that her son - who had gone only for fishing and did not carry a gun for fighting - was killed, she decides to take the rifle and go to the battle fields with the "Father”? and "Jose”?.
This play was written when "Bertolt Brecht”? was in exile and the domestic wars of Spain had recently begun. In this play, "Bertolt Brecht”? again attaches special importance to the role of woman and being mother. All the basic effort of "Carrar”? is keeping her sons away from the danger of war and death. Then she announces to be neutral in this war. It is while according to "Bertolt Brecht”?, it is an immature idea and imagination to announce being neutral in a war. And every one is involved in the war willingly or unwillingly when the war begins. That is the reason of why "Senora Carrar”? takes the rifle at the end of the play and rushes to the battle field.
"Bertolt Brecht”? might have blamed him for leaving his home land and letting the fighters to fight in it. He might feel that he had become empty of necessary piety and honesty. In a general view, we can say that considering the materialistic views of "Bertolt Brecht”?, he finally noticed and focused on pieties and humanitarian emotions. He actually intended to revive these emotions, pieties and values.
When writing about these pieties and speaking about worry about elimination of these values at the time of occurrence of war, "Bertolt Brecht”? takes an anti - war position and condemned the side effects of war like many other people who have written works and plays about war.
But we can find a common point in the works and plays of "Bertolt Brecht”? and other writers who did not deny the spirit of fighting and battle. And the point is the fact that despite all badness and side effects of war it means people who are killed and the countries and lands which are destroyed and the humanitarian values which are eliminated, "War”? is undeniable when it is related to gaining rights of people. And people should make efforts to gain their lost rights by participating in "War”?.
The main attack of "Bertolt Brecht”? is towards the powerful state men and governments that start war in the world; the powers that eliminate humanitarian and cultural values of the human society based on their economic greed.
Even at the night when the port people have gathered to dispatch their young sons to the battle fields, she sends her older son "Joan”? for fishing. This way, she wanted her older son not to know about this gathering. Finally and after occurrence of many events, the women of the village bring the dead body of "Joan”?. It was while "Carrar”? still resisted and was not ready to give her rifle. When "Carrar”? sees that her son - who had gone only for fishing and did not carry a gun for fighting - was killed, she decides to take the rifle and go to the battle fields with the "Father”? and "Jose”?.
This play was written when "Bertolt Brecht”? was in exile and the domestic wars of Spain had recently begun. In this play, "Bertolt Brecht”? again attaches special importance to the role of woman and being mother. All the basic effort of "Carrar”? is keeping her sons away from the danger of war and death. Then she announces to be neutral in this war. It is while according to "Bertolt Brecht”?, it is an immature idea and imagination to announce being neutral in a war. And every one is involved in the war willingly or unwillingly when the war begins. That is the reason of why "Senora Carrar”? takes the rifle at the end of the play and rushes to the battle field.
"Bertolt Brecht”? might have blamed him for leaving his home land and letting the fighters to fight in it. He might feel that he had become empty of necessary piety and honesty. In a general view, we can say that considering the materialistic views of "Bertolt Brecht”?, he finally noticed and focused on pieties and humanitarian emotions. He actually intended to revive these emotions, pieties and values.
When writing about these pieties and speaking about worry about elimination of these values at the time of occurrence of war, "Bertolt Brecht”? takes an anti - war position and condemned the side effects of war like many other people who have written works and plays about war.
But we can find a common point in the works and plays of "Bertolt Brecht”? and other writers who did not deny the spirit of fighting and battle. And the point is the fact that despite all badness and side effects of war it means people who are killed and the countries and lands which are destroyed and the humanitarian values which are eliminated, "War”? is undeniable when it is related to gaining rights of people. And people should make efforts to gain their lost rights by participating in "War”?.
The main attack of "Bertolt Brecht”? is towards the powerful state men and governments that start war in the world; the powers that eliminate humanitarian and cultural values of the human society based on their economic greed.
Considering the fact that any of plays of "Bertolt Brecht”? is related to one country, we can come to the result that in the point of view of "Bertolt Brecht”?, a destructive war is not limited to a limited time and of a particular country like Germany; but it may happen in different periods of time and in any part of the world. Then people of those countries are involved in this war.
Besides, fight of people from any races, either white or black or any other races indicate the important point that freedom from cruelty is not limited to the people of a particular country or a particular religion and race; but it is a global issue that every one seeks it [Freedom].
"Bertolt Brecht”? emphasizes on improvement of changing people. Therefore, we can observe presence of people in his plays that were not aware at the beginning. They were just ordinary people; but in their developing and improving path, they changed into moving and believer people in order to be able to be present in the battle fields. These characters achieved to high and suitable positions.
Champions in the plays written by "Bertolt Brecht”? are ordinary and normal people at the beginning of the play; but they change into a special and great person due to the situation in which they live. This change can be seen both in special characters in his plays and during the play. This way, people have been growing in the plays of "Bertolt Brecht”? and accept wonderful changes in their character. Besides, "Bertolt Brecht”? always focused on studying pieties and moralities in the characters of his plays.

Consequence:

In a general look at the plays which have been written in the world about "War”?, we find out the fact that no writer has confirmed the nature of "War”?. And basically, all of these writers have considered and desc

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