News ID: 300367
Publish Date: 09 March 2011 - 10:23

Investigating the Production of the Ù?Sacred Defense War Plays (Text to Performance)

Iran is a country with a history that is unique from the point of view of colorfulness and variety. This country has experienced a lot of suffering and misfortunes and in spite of all these bitter events one has to be proud of this old and civilized country as well as with well known and famous generals. Those who did not suffer in their lives are not worthy of happiness.
Iran is a country with a history that is unique from the point of view of colorfulness and variety. This country has experienced a lot of suffering and misfortunes and in spite of all these bitter events one has to be proud of this old and civilized country as well as with well known and famous generals. Those who did not suffer in their lives are not worthy of happiness. Tragedy has always been worthy of great figures, it is true about the nations as well. What make a nation experienced as well as respectful is not just its victories as well as its forces; rather his sufferings and unhappiness are also contributing to the grandeur of that nation.
One of the greatest weaknesses of the theater society is lack of research. In this regard, research on the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war has drawn the least attention. Performance activities can not be a sure guarantee for the lasting of the theater. It is not possible to improve the scientific – qualitative characteristics of the theater when research on theater is considered a side section of the festivals.
It is not just the research article that is of great importance for the writer. Rather he intends a useful article that can have the applicable side as well and help the students in the process of production and the performance of the theater.
At the excuse of performing a play called "A Dreamed Unvocal”? or "Gong – e – Khab Dideh”? in Japan, I noticed a valuable and beautiful move on the part of the Japanese Ministry of Culture and Art in that country and it is a clear fact that we are in lack of such authorities in the scenes of our theaters.
The Ministry of Art and Culture in Japan asks the pioneers of theater (including the actors, directors as well as the writers and . . . . . . .) who are about to retire to write down their experiences, the reasons of their successes and their happy and unhappy memories and the authorities publish them so that the students and the artists of these fields be able to make use of them.
What this article is intended to focus on is the transference of the learned experiences as well as the observations as well as the findings of "Mani Theater Group”? that has been achieved in the process of the performance of the play – especially the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war – and they might not be found in other books and journals, because they are the results of many years of presence in the theater especially in the last few years.
The process of "from the text to the performance of the scenes”? is closer to reality when some experienced researchers, have taken some active theater groups in the field of the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war under close consideration so that they could finally achieve a precise and meticulous investigation.
The writer of this article, for his assistance and continuous cooperation with the theatrical groups such as the theater group of Bazi, the theater group of Aftab, the theater – cinema group of Aeen as well as Kargah Nemaiesh theater group, is intended to present an applicable – scientific evaluation with a focus on "self – teaching – self trust”?.
The shortest and the fastest way to achieve to the truth and reality of any thing is to define it.”? Socrates

The Festival of the Theater of War
The Definition of War: War denotatively means dispute, discord, quarrel and battle between two persons, two tribes and two countries or . . . . . .
Kinds of War:
1. The War of the Human Beings with gods
2. The war of the human beings with the animals
3. the war of the human beings with other human beings
The war of a man with another man can be one by one or worldly.
"Since the time of the creation of Adam and accordingly Eve, the sin was also born. Their throwing out of the paradise as well as taking God’s prohibitions for granted – eating from the forbidden tree – was itself the beginning of the fist human sin”?. The war of Abel and Cain can be regarded as the first war of man with man. With a look at the "national myths”? and the "traditional myths of the world”? and "Dastane Hezar va yek Shab”? (One Thousand and one Night Story), as well as Shahname by Ferdousi one can understand that the war has been transferred orally and it has always accompanying the human beings; further more they it has been registered in the history and the culture of the nations so much as the injustice is replaced with justice; otherwise there would still be war.
1. War of Defense: A person or a tribe who has no other choice except for defense and considers defending one’s ideals and the lands of one’s country as their natural right.
2. War of Transgression: A person or a tribe with a seemingly logical justification attacks another person or tribe.

The Theater of War:
The content of the theater of war is more than anything else in opposition to war. The Theater of War is a theater that has all the characteristics of drama and its subject matter was about war; this means that it directly or indirectly deals with the events of war, its difficulties as well as its problems.
The First Drama of War:
Until 5 century B . C . there is no written play on war; the first and the oldest play that deals with the subject of war is a play by Aeschylus called "The Iranians”?.
The Iranians is the foundation for the beginning of the historical drama that deals with the war of Iran and classical Greek – The War of Salamis. Aeschylus himself took part in this war. All its scenes and moments were concrete for the Athenians. Iranians or the Persians was able to receive a prize in a Dionysus Festival.”?
The Process of the Formation of the Theater of Ù?Sacred Defense War:
According to the U . N . the country who starts war is transgressor and the one that defends is called Defended. Among the registered wars, the longest war is the war of Iran and Iraq that started on 22 / 9 / 1980 (31 / 6 / 1359) and lasted for eight years. From the damned contracts of the Qajar period to the recent past some parts of the Iranian territory has been separated and was given to others. The war of Iran – Iraq is a Ù?Sacred defense war from this point of view that we did not give even a bit of our country to the enemy; this long defense is regarded to be a valuable and useful defense.

The Theater of the Ù?Sacred Defense War:
Definition: It is a theater in which defense, resistance, sacrifice and martyrdom has critical importance. In general the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war is to be investigated at two different times:

1 . The time of the war:
A . Underground Theater :
This theater was performed at the time of air raids – red condition – in the undergrounds designed for the safe preservation of the spirit of the people and to strengthen it; the time of the plays for this theater was very short; until the condition changed from red to white.
B . The Theater in the Frontiers:
These plays used to be performed on a stand (truck, broken tanks as well as . . . . . . . ) and it aimed at strengthening the spirit of the soldiers and to weaken the spirit of the soldiers of the enemy.

2 . After The War:
C . Protective – Ordered Theater i. e. propaganda
The subject of the majority of these plays is to appreciate the warriors and heroes on one hand and to present the enemy silly. These kinds of plays, although they had the form of theater and drama, did not have deep themes because of their propagandist nature as well as their mono – dimensional point of view.

D . Pure Theater:
It is a theater that is devoid of order, propaganda and slogan. It is theater that is seeking a complete dramatic situation. Most of the time, they deal with the relationship of the people together at the time of the war and after it. In the pure theater, every thing is pure including dramatic condition and characters as well as atmosphere. It seems, achieving an appropriate condition regarding the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war is to reach a utopia that needs the help of the artists and the authorities who are active in this regard.
Text: (Play)
Definition: A play is a text or a written document that is more or less literary. Generally a play presents a tale or story. It is one of the three main genres of literature. It is the most basic, important as well as the most fundamental stage of a play. In fact, the more the level of writing plays increases the more the theater will become better. Among the plays that I have read or seen in the festivals of the Ù?Sacred defense war I just remember a few. Unfortunately the number of the plays that can shock the reader or make him / her think and reason has been very few and even rare. Of a good text, even in the worst situations, one can expect at least an average performance but of a weak text, even in the worst condition one can not expect any thing.
The Recognized plays are to be investigated from two point of view:
1 . Subject (M , condition, Personage)
2 . Structure (form)

An Introduction to Understanding Plays (Eight Factors)
In investigating the performances and the texts of the valuable plays "eight elements of understanding play can be observed:
1 . The subjects of the plays did not have consumption dates. (They could have been performed at any time and in any place)
2 . The Subject of the plays are not cliché and repetitive. (with regard to the needs and tastes of the audience, subjects and the universal and pure ideas)
3 . The people of the plays are original (they have not to be superficial and mono – dimensional)
4. The writer should have complete authority over the standard language as well as the languages of the plays (the spiritual and the emotional dimensions of the characters have to be paid attention to).
5. The writer has to have done enough research on the topic of the play. (Tribal, cultural and climatic as well as . . . . . . characteristics has to be taken in to consideration).
6 . The author, in order to increase attraction, conflict as well as suspense has to change linear structure to non – linear structures.
7 . The writer has to be aware of the dimensions of war – at the time of war and after it. (it is quite obvious that the subjects with social, economical as well as political subjects after the war can be more successful).
8 . The events, causes and effects should have a logical relationship with one another and with all the play in general.
In any movement maker and paradigmatic play the above characteristics have been considered and they have sometimes led to the creation of styles.
For example: The Wall of China by Max Frisch translated by Mohammad Hefazati:
Emroozi: why are you crying?
Mom: It a year Sire, a complete year!
Emroozi: You were wanderers. I understand. Do you want Tonankinchi?
Mom: (to her dumb child) Did you hear Wang? He asks if we want Tonankinchi! Wang did you hear?
Mother: (to Emroozi) We want to see the emperor.
Emroozi: the emperor?
Mom: Ching Sheng Howang . . . . . . the son of God – who is always right . . . . . people say this is not true.
Emroozi: What is not true?
Mom: that he is the son of God.
Emroozi: so what is he?
Mom: a bloody man.
Emroozi: hmmmm
Mom: a deaths man . . . . . . a killer . . . . . . (she sings this songs loudly): We are counting those who were killed in the war / they are counting the coins of the war
Emroozi: Who is singing this song?
Mom: Min Ku
Emroozi: Min Ku?
Mom: People know him by this name . . . . . it means the voice of the people. No body has seen him so far. The emperor wants to kill him . . . . . .
None of the above dialogues can be omitted. Every dialogue is not only a context and a background for the later dialogue but also is useful in the process of the introduction completion of the other people. The reasons that have made the wall of china a great play are as follow:
1. Making symbolic use of the Chinese Wall
2. Poking fun at the authorities and rulers as well as emperors agents
3. Questioning people reaction to the behavior of the people regarding their silliness and their indifference.
4. Poking fun at history, repetition of history and its great characteristics
5. The adaptation of time and place with a new structure and a sweet irony.

In most of the plays that have been published or performed on the Ù?Sacred defense war the events are superficial and even the omission of a scene does not make any change in the general process of the story as well as the people.
Why the posters and the newspapers always call my plays drama. Stansilavsky has found something in my play that is not similar in any way to what I have written and I bet he did not study / read my play carefully even for once. I am sorry to tell this but this is a truth.
Reading the Text:
The Stages of reading the Text:
1. For the Writer: "Reading the text loudly, for the writer himself, is one of the most important and crucial stages; at this stage the writer is the first person who hears what he has written.”?
2. For the director: In situations in which neither the power of the director nor the power of the text has to be dominant, the combination and the adaptation of both to the same degree and at the same time is necessary. The more the relationship between the writer and the director is close at this stage the more successful the play will be.
Note: In order for further clarification of the work, the dramatization of the work and even making amends, a director behind the frontier lines or a dramaturge is needed. This need is completely sensible in the plays of the Ù?Sacred defense war but we have never witnessed the presence of a dramaturge, a person whose ideas are strategic for the writer and dramatic for the director.
3. For the Group: In reading the text for the performance group by the writer or the director the followings will be performed:
A. the ambience or the atmosphere as well as the mood of the play
B. the high and the low points
C. Silences, the method of expression on the part of the players, focuses and insistences as well as weaknesses
D. Analyzing the characters of play and in the end the unification of the ideas of the players and the directors.
4. Reading Plays (reading for the general people) This`will cause the followings:
A. N/table activities of the theatrical groups
B. the technical as well as professional critical analysis of the plays
C. Reading of the plays which have the problems of performance
D. Discovering and identification of the good plays and the young playwrights.

I asked: what should a director have?
He said: only one thing.
I asked: and what is that thing?
He said: self – trust

It was Edward Gordon Craig (1872 - 1966) who used the term "director”? for the first time in its contemporary meaning. Before that, the producer has had relatively the same meaning and in 19th C . the term Actor – manger was common. The most important duties of directors are arrangements of the scenes, creating scenes or the same mise – en – scene). "Half of direction is to be a director and this means accepting the responsibility, making decisions and saying yes, no and in the end it is he who can express the final word. The other half of direction is the true keeping and preservation of the path. "Movement is one of the most important means of a playwright”?. A group of people consider movement as what has left of the religious and ceremonial play in the theatre. The creations of atmosphere and rhythm as well as helping characterization are some of the duties of the directors.
The movement of the actors and their management are done in two forms:
1. Mechanistic (superficial)
2. Meaningful (deep)

The correct combination of these two would lead to the creation of the act of play. "Whatever movement that takes place is an event; whenever an event causes and leads to another event, these tow events form a dramatic mise – en – scene”?. A stage in which the mentality changes in to reality and guess and suppositions change in to reality and certainty is called mise – en – scene stage. The movement and the management of the actors on the stage takes the greatest amount of the rehearsal time; of course the volume of the play and the creativity of the group also have influences on the amount of rehearsal time. Unfortunately in many of the Iranian plays, most of the movements and the mise – en – scenes are narrated instead of being presented. Silence and stasis – except in the necessary conditions – have made the Iranian play neutral and immobile.
From Potential Stage to Performance Stage (mise – en – scene)
mise – en – scene is a French term and the most precise meaning of it is to "bring to the eye what is not available in the play.”? Without considering the time of reading rehearsals, normally a play with an average volume takes a month and a half time.
The First Week : A Free Week
In the first week of rehearsals on the scenes, in addition to the preparation of the language of the actors and as well as his body and doing happy plays, the actors are provided with this opportunity to move, to stand and to sit and to sleep and to laugh as well as to runs and . . . . . . . . . as they wish. They are allowed to read the dialogue as he / she wishes, to sing songs and in other words to throw out whatever they have. They are even allowed to disregard whatever contract has been made in the text of the play as well as in the first reading of the play. In the end of the week, step by step, the secretary of the scenes is required to take note of the most logical and the most beautiful movements of the actors – if course at the selection of the director.

The Second and the Third Week: Two Weeks of Creativity and Atwood
Encouraging all the participants, – especially the actors –, to present the dialogue of the play or the actions of the play by improvisation. They are asked to create whatever they wish and then leave the judgment of its goodness and badness to the director.
- discovering the hidden layers pf the texts and the white areas between the lines of the play, creating the behavioral and emotional characteristics of the characters, changing of the text, in case it was necessary, simultaneously; the actors are required to change the places of the words or the location of the verbs and changes such as these, increase the effects and the quality of the dialogues to a great extent. In order to strengthen the relationship between the characters of the play, its interest and making them seem more pleasing and beautiful or due to the prevention of giving direct information to the audience, we might be able to omit a scene or a dialogue. In case the director is the designer of the scene, he presents the skis or the mock design of the scene to the performance group – especially the actors. It is after this that the actors, with regard to the plan of the scene, want to move and create movements. In the end of the week two, the director comes into the scenes and encourages the fixated movements and gives order to make amends.
- Week Four: The week of formation
In this stage the results and the outcome of the ideas of the actors are concretely observable; the mise – en – scene of the all play is formed.
Note: In as much as the writer of this article has studied Math and Physics he is making use of different mathematical physical rules: in order to show and present the play he is making use of Hendese, in the process of characterization he is making use of the Sinews diagrams, in the movement of the characters he is making use of the law of doubt by Varner Heisenberg and he is making use of the third law of Newton when two characters are standing face to face.
Fifth Week: The Week of Birth:
Birth is a statement which means giving life or meaning to something; be it a human being or be it a sentence; adding the devices of the scene and clothes – to possible extents - , adding live of selected music as well as the performance of the play with all its details without any cut.
The Last Week: The week of Corrections and the Review (Retouch)
Asking experienced friends and experts and making use of their useful ideas and being completely ready for complete revision.
The Possibility of Performance:
If the play has the opportunity to be presented in cities or even out of the country, without doubt the dominant culture and thoughts in the play will have great effects and it is through the understanding of the people of those cities or countries and adding a few words – only a few words – that we can improve its degree of relationship with the audience. A Point: This is obvious in the total arrangement of the scenes, actors, and the movable décor. One of the superiorities of the theater over cinema is that the director can change mise – en – scene and thereby transfer his message in a better way. With this description, the performance of the last day of the directors is not only the same performance of the first day but rather it is better as well. Sometimes everything in a play is true and logical but it seems that the spirit of the work does not have any influence on the audience; the question is here: what is wrong with what part of the play? Maybe the director does not believe in what does and did not believe in the characters of the play.
In General choosing the text in mistake, incorrect understanding of the concepts and the hidden layers of the text, incorrect selection of the actors, incorrect reading and aimless guidance as well as lack of faith and beliefs in one’s works and efforts are some of the cases what brings down the director from the apex to the lowest point.

Theater means actor; when there is nothing one can make everything with his actors. It is the actor who makes, says and plays. So he / she have to have notable capabilities including "technical and physical capabilities as well as laudable and appreciated characteristics”?. The correct selection of the actors for playing a role is one of the most difficult stages of production of the plays. Therefore if one can passes this stage successfully he has overcome one fourths of the problems.
1. Casting (selection of the actors)
"Seeing and hearing signs of the actor, the ways he / she expresses the dialogues of the play, emphasis and his / her ways of pronunciation, the degree of the loudness of voice, Mim, gesture, the intonation as well as the movement, height, physique, weight and more important than anything else the style and the way he plays are of great importance. There are quite a lot of role that the actor has done a lot of efforts to present an acceptable play but sorrowfully and most sorrowfully his / her appearance and his / her physique was not appropriate for that special role. The faces of the actors (face, body as well as type and . . . . . . . ) is the key to enter his / her inner side. If a mistake occurs in selection this mistake is not remediable and can not satisfy the needs. The actors of the play can be more successful with the spiritual movement and truth as well as belief in their roles than through their attaching of themselves to the techniques and exaggeration in words, movements and sensations as well as. . . . . . . . . .
The Actors are divided in to two categories:
Reasonable Actors: an actor who through his / her correct understanding of his / her role makes the audience think and reason.
The Exaggerating Period: An actor who with the help of instinct overwhelms his own audience in his sensations and feelings; in other words it puts the emotions of the audience in to motion.
Most of the play goers these days establish relationship with the reasonable actors in most of the times. The way that the reasonable actor plays is in a way that the audience is always expecting a pure and unique scene and moment. Not only in the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war but more generally in the theater most of the actors understand this condition and they have lived in it and can be both players as well as authors. They are sometimes exaggerating actors and sometimes even they become imitative actors. Worst of all it is when the imitative actor can not choose a good actor to follow and to set as his / her own model.
The time has past to play with the sensations of the audience through making use of seek and escape of the Karbala event, sublime intonation as well as religious dialogues and . . . . . . . . . Of course some percentage of these kinds of actions refer to the incorrect leading on the part of the director and a portion of it refer back to the text; but the majority of its reasons is dependant on the actor himself / herself. What keeps the actors of the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war in its cliché and imitative framework is lack of studies and lack of respect for the interests of the audience. With regard to the great volume of film and theater as well as different books on acting and the growth of this branch of art it is not appropriate for the play of the actors of this arena be an imitation and a repetition of the actors of decades ago.
Guiding the Actor (references)
1. On the Scene (referring back to the later pages)
2. out of the scene (references)
A. the reference of the actor to the similar characters in the rich literature and texts of Iran and the world (studying novel: war and peace, the Christ did not ever reach here, Gadfly, Ù?Sacred week, open Badbadak, nothing is happening in the west, death is my occupation, Nuremburg Trials and . . . . . . and the Iranian novels especially the novels of Ahmad Dehghan and those of Habib Ahmad Zade) . . . . . . . .Studying the memories and dangers of the commanders, soldiers as well as those who have been freed from prisons and studying the works of the famous dramatists in the domain of war: Bertolt Brecht, Eugene Unesco, Fernando Arabel, Emanuel Robles, Roman Rolan, Jean Paul Sartre, Burshert, Athol Foghard, Peter Vice, Arman Gatti, Howard Barker, Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripides, and . . . . . . . . . . ).
B. Referring the actors to see the famous war movies (documentaries and story telling ones) as well as the Tele – Theaters of Iran and the World: (Tele _ Theater: The Secluding people of Altuna, Mother Courage and Her Sons, Picnic in the war Fields, Montessor, The Dead without Coffins, all my sons and . . . . . . . . )
Film: Metal Sheath, Now the End of the World, Honorable Ways, Spartacus, Squad, Paradise and Earth, Quai River, Lawrence in Arabia, The Hunter of Deer, Saving Ryan, Enemy behind the Doors, Great Dictator, Troy, Stalingrad Fight, Dirty Man, Dr. Strange Love, Patriot, Omar Mokhtar, Mohammad Rasoul Allah, Underground, Pianist, Hiroshima, My Love, Last Year in Marin Bud, Catin, Rome: A Defenseless City, Berlin Year Zero, Shindler Legend, No One’s Land, Dr. Jivago, Miracle in St. Anna, Cold Mountains as well as Jan dark and Amsted, and . . . . . . .. . . . )
C. Referring the Actors to Different Place to make them familiar with the culture, customs as well as native accents and local tongue as well as the behavior of the people.
D. Referring the players to the People of the war:
In the play called "Secret”? the subject of which is related to Rex Cinema in Abadan, we found a person who has lost his only brother in that calamity. The presence of this person in the rehearsals for the group and especially the actors of the play was quite valuable and made the play seem more real.
In another play called "The Fall of the Leaves”? the second leave, I was walking for some days in the cemetery of the martyrs (the easy corner of the city park – behesht Street.) and while I was asking and even beseeching the soldiers as well as the gatekeepers to let me see the reaction of the wives when they were facing the dead bodies of their husbands; the moods, behaviors, their treatment as well as the dialogues and silences were chosen and I explained them for the actors. It was these coming and going to Meraj that caused the formation of the idea to write a play called "Peikar”? in my mind. This stage is the most important stage, The degree of the actors’ efforts in the leisure hours in which they did not practice is as important as it is at the time of rehearsals.

Certainly, referring the actor to the above – mentioned cases, both at the time of rehearsal and at the time of performance, will lead the actor to be creative and to be more experienced. These references will have its effects unconsciously and in the ending days of performance, the actors change in to "everlasting characters”?.
3. The actor and the performance for the Audience:
What motivates the actors is the performance of the play for the Audience. The majority of the professional actors and semi – professional actors as well as amateur characters do not have any interest in acting in such kind of plays. The actors are afraid of beings engulfed in the cliché plays as well as acting based on contract. There is the possibility of performance of these plays for the Audience to a great extent. (they are not performed for the audience and they are justified with one or two festivals, and this means that the bothers that the author took is taken for granted.) If the plays have anything to tell the majority of the members of the councils will take the theaters of the Ù?Sacred defense war and the players’ un – common plays for granted. The association of the Actors of the Ù?Sacred defense war theater is not still founded and established so as the protection and the contracts of the actors are institutionalized.
Décor is the silent dialogue.
The design of the scene (clothes and make up as well as the music): The design of the scene and the clothes are some of the visual elements that are of great importance after the director of the play. The documentation of the time and place of the happening of the theater, helping characterization, helping the actors in performing his / her role and the formation of the subject and ambience of the theater are some of the applications of the designing the scenes and clothes.
Most of the professional directors go to design the scene after they have chosen the texts and when the theater hall was specified. By forming various sessions and analysis: the place of the play, the time of the play and the explanation of the scenes (the geography of the scene, the division of the scenes, the blind and the golden spots in the scenes as well as . . . . . . . ) the style of the performance of the playwright would come to a unique result. The designing of the clothes and the scene, on the basis of this agreement and results, would provide the director with "skis and . . . . . .”? so as with this he could lead the actors and . . . . . . For example if the location of a play is in Venice, the decorator of the scene with regard to the performance style of the director has to specify, revise and focus on the location but he has not to define it. Many of the original and active plans of the artistic designers are influenced by:
1 . Lack of enough Budgets
2 . Mal – Administration of performance and the professional human resources in different areas such as planning, carpentry, iron making as well as painting and designing the décor as well as . . . . . . ). The designers of the play should be encouraged so as their décor: A . be in concordance with the content of the play and B . be portable and then C . it has to be economical both in time and money but this should not encourage the authorities to be more stingy and thereby making use of a banal device something common in the plays. Some of the authorities, with their wrong statements as well as their mistaken understanding of the "empty atmosphere of the theater”?, "poor theater”? and making use of the ideas of Edward Gordon Craig”? they should not eradicate the design of the scene.
Designing of the Clothes:
1. To be satisfied with the clothes that are available in the Cloth Archive of the Dramatic Art Center
2. Lack of understanding of the exact budget
3. Poor knowledge of designing and ethnology
4. Lack of inclination on the part of the director to get rid of the subjects of the time in which he lives has led to forgetting the design of clothes.
5. "The designer of the clothes”? in the brochure as well as the posters of the professional theater of the country during the past few years shows this claim.
Except for a few cases the music of the Ù?Sacred defense war has always been the chosen music and not the live music.
Make up:
Make up designing has a worse condition that does the designing of clothes. Make up, even the superficial ones, includes the following:
1. Shows the actor older than what they are (to the extent of phon)
2. Showing the actor to be injured (in the injury over the face of the actor or on his other parts of the body).
3. Showing the actor in the southern direction (making the face and the hands of the actor darker)
4. Showing the enemy to be harsh (making their faces full of frowning lines, showing their eyes as well as lips bigger than the normal as well as placing mustache)

In General the way that the authorities treat the theater led to the downgrading of "designing scenes and clothes as well as make up) in Iran in general and the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war in particular.
It is quoted that a man came to another man while he was complaining; he said: "your sons are holding stones and they are throwing them at my nose. The father collected his sons and criticized them severely for what they had done. He said: "Didn’t God create any other goals in this huge world? Why did you throw stones at the nose of this poor guy? They said "Dear Father . . . . . . We do not have any thing to do with him. Wherever we throw our stones, they hit him. His nose is so big that wherever we throw our stones they hit his nose.”?
The Council of Supervision and Evaluation:
Some people, be it in thought or be it in action, believe that the real condition of successful work in the fact that they extend their circle of prohibition and preventions”?. Every morning when they get up they add some topic to their lists. The border of the theater is safe but what are its borders and limitations? Do not read, do not write, do not go, do not be, and words as such. In revision of a play by the Council of Supervision and Evaluation there are some red lines and going beyond these lines is regarded as the lowering of the people who are involved in this committee. . . . . . The red line of the Council of Supervision and Evaluation, after viewing the theatrical plays are as follow:
Showing any kind of sympathy and love on the part of the enemy to the forces of the country is strictly prohibited.
There were no such people in the war.
We did not have humorous or joking people in the war.
The soldier who is at war does not smoke in any way.
The soldier who is at war does not look forward to conserves of fruits or does not love football.
There was no traitor in the war.
We do not have any run away soldier.
We do not have any gray characters.
The soldier who believes in Christianity should turn towards Islam during the course of the play.
So what are the personal and communal characteristics of these fighters and warriors of which we do not know anything? With having a cursory look at the collection of books called "the Culture of Jibhe”? we will soon understand that the people of the war were not different from us in any way.
The Necessity of Change in the Point of view of the Member of the Council of Supervision and Evaluation. . . . .
After the films "Ajans – e – Shishei, Lieli Ba Man Ast and Ekhrajiha”? the red lines of the past have become a point. How is it that a one day anti – value changes to a value or vice – versa? This means that instead of making appropriate criticism and thereby causing the theater to become successful, they are taking care of the performance group so as they do not make any mistakes; in other words they are the threat bells that rang without wanting. When the economical condition makes the actor think about the place where the tickets are sold, it is very difficult to create a balance between the tickets selling as well as the creation of a challenging plays.
"Relationship”? The Best Evaluation:
1 . Special Audience (Problematic )
2 . general audience (easy takers )
3 . a combination of both . . . . .

A group of people believe that in as much as the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war has a special characteristic therefore only a special group of people see it and it is enough if this group is satisfied. There is another group who believes that the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war is a part of the general theater and therefore it has to attract the general audience; whenever the subject of speaking is the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war there are a lot of value related concepts that are revitalized in the mind and it is expected that these concepts can individually answer all the cultural and thinking needs of the society. If we want to give identity to the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war we have first of all to prepare the preliminary steps of accepting the concepts and the values for the audience. One of the reasons for paying less attention to the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war is lack of satisfaction with the above point. If the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war has something to do with the issues around the life of the audience and its characters are believable and concrete for the audience, it will certainly be his cultural and thinking worries as well.
Easy going audience is a gift given by God but the audience which is very strict is not our enemy.”? Therefore we have to seek something that can create excitement and increase his degree of attention as well as perception; if the events of the story are nice, the play will be nice for the audience. . . . . .
High number of sale or low number of sale does not indicate the success of failure of a play but the relationship of the general and particular audience with the play can be the best criterion for the evaluation of the play.
After three decades of the performance of the play called "Nane Khezireh”? a lot of people still remember the events of the story; it is a play that professionals accept and the common people understand it.
You! A great number of the people who died before me! Help me! Tell me what did you do – before death – for death? Teach me in this regard and . . . . . . . . .
The King dies . . . . .
The performance of the play with the subject of the Ù?Sacred defense war is not a continuous and unbroken issue. Only at three stages of the year different play on the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war are presented on the scenes and in the theater halls.
1 . The week of the Ù?Sacred defense war (22 September to 28 of September )
2 . The week in which Khorram Shar was Released (22 May to 29 May)
3 . The Week of Basij (22 November to 29 November)
What is still strange is that the plays that are played during these three weeks are the same plays that have been presented during the last years. . . . . .
With these explanations in mind, exhibiting the theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war that is rarely presented in general has become a very tough and difficult task. The expense for the rental charges of the halls, simple reception of the group in the hall and during the rehearsals and other expense are very high. Worse is that the halls of the theatre are open either on the odd days or on the even days like the traffic in Tehran. Continuous and unbroken exercises have decreased from every day to three days a week.
What does this mean? Is it possible that the rehearsal of a play be only on odd or even days? Sometimes in the past everything was possible through negotiation and dialogue but currently we have to give more money to practice two hours more, or to write a lot of letters and one has to pass through a lot of difficulties and . . . . . . . .
Although it is normal that the writers of article speak hopefully in the end or conclusions of their articles and are optimistic about the future of the subject they have tried in their articles but I have to say openly that:
The theater of the Ù?Sacred defense war is made very poor in comparison with the other types of theater”?. . . . . .
The way to rescue this value oriented theater is "support and respect on the part of the authorities”? and "changing their points of views”?. The majority of the artists of theater, whether it is as they wish or not, have been involved in a way with the eight years of the Ù?Sacred defense war and consider conducting activities in this field as fulfilling their duties towards their country men and women who have been martyred. .

Writer: Sirous Hemati
Source: Book "Lost notes" to try and change "Mohsen Babaee Rabii," and by the Revolution and Sacred Defense Theater Association and published
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