US invasion to Tabas

US invasion to Tabas

US invasion to Tabas was actually started from November 4, 1979, when Iranian Muslim students attacked the US embassy in Tehran and hold 53 Americans as hostages.
“Index dictionary of martyrs”, the most important research source in life of martyrs

“Index dictionary of martyrs”, the most important research source in life of martyrs

a note from Mahbub Shahbazi, the director general of Documents and Publications of Martyr and Veterans affairs Foundation on occasion of publishing index dictionary of martyrs of all country by Shahed Publisher.
Interest in the Theater of the Sacred Defense War

Interest in the Theater of the Sacred Defense War

After about 3 decades since the beginning of the imposed war and the creation of the early works of theater of the Sacred defense war and about twenty years after its end, it is possible to say after looking at the bulk of the works that have been produces that one of the main problems and issues of the theater of the Sacred defense war is lack of attention to the item of interest or devaluation of it in the theater of the Sacred defense war. Interest is an item, the presence of which, gives life to a theatrical work and the absence of which takes away life from it. . .
Relationship between War Plays and the Culture of Self Sacrifice, Martyrdom and Resistance

Relationship between War Plays and the Culture of Self Sacrifice, Martyrdom and Resistance

As other types of play writing, play writing in the field of war or resistance can be studied from different points of views. In this respect, we can refer to different points of views such as sociology, psychology, home and family, characterization, dialogue writing, subject, plot, structure, presence of different character and types of people as well as point of view of self sacrifice, martyrdom and resistance. While writing plays for war theatre or resistance theatre, concepts such as self sacrifice, martyrdom and resistance are special concepts. These concepts have always been noticed by play writers. These concepts have some times appeared in special outstanding form that rarely observed in other types of play writing. And when speaking about a war under the name of “Sacred Defense”?, it is natural that such concepts benefit from more out standing aspects.
Studying Metaphoric Dramas

Studying Metaphoric Dramas

Despite passing more than two decades since resistance theatre started and in spite of making lots of efforts, holding different festivals and efforts made by thinkers in this fields, public welcome to this genre of theatre and quantity of works in this field are not satisfactory. In this article (Research), I intend to find the reason for this pathology. In order to achieve this goal, I will study signs of these works. By considering the accepted theory of “Allegory”? and “Metaphor”? presented by “Roman Jacobson”?, we will reach to two groups of “Figurative Drama”? and “Metaphorical Drama”?. These groups include four types of “Metaphor of Basic Poetry”?, “Metaphor of Basic Prose”?, “Allegory of Basic Poetry”? and “Allegory of Basic Prose”?. By conducting comparative study on resistance theatre and resistance cinema, we have reached to “Figurative Drama of Resistance Cinema”? and “Metaphorical Drama of Resistance Theatre”? as accepted models. Lack of knowledge about these two types of dramas and mixing them with them resulted in making lots of efforts in picturing war on theatre stage (With a metaphorical view). It is while it is in contrary with nature of theatre as a medium. And this lack of knowledge has been recognized as the root of this pathology. In our studies, we also came to the result that cliché subjects and limited plots are other weaknesses and damages in this field.
Studying and Reviewing “War”? in Some Plays: Plays in Ancient Greece, Shakespeare’s Plays and Bertolt Brecht’s Plays

Studying and Reviewing “War”? in Some Plays: Plays in Ancient Greece, Shakespeare’s Plays and Bertolt Brecht’s Plays

Paradox is the main element of dramatic works. And we need two powers opposite each other in order to form any play; the two powers that one of which intends to change the current situation and the other one intends to keep the current situation. Therefore, all of the elements of the play and other elements are influenced by the intention of these two powers. And they develop parallel with these powers. We can observe “Clash”? in other narrative forms too. These other forms of narrative forms are namely myth, legend, story, old story, narrative movie, etc. all of these mentioned narrative forms find identity by getting help from clash and fighting. They change into an attractive possibility for following up an idea and target which is pre-identified by the writer. And they finally achieve a form of development and result. We can find one of the most beautiful forms of paradox in the sentence said by Hazrat Imam Ali [The first imam of the Shiite people] that was written at the beginning of the article. War is one of the outstanding appearances of paradox and clash. What ever the motivation of war is, it benefits from two opposing powers.
Surveying a War Play “Beyond the Back Door”? Written by “Wolfgang Bur Short”?

Surveying a War Play “Beyond the Back Door”? Written by “Wolfgang Bur Short”?

Beyond the Back Door is a distressing explanation of the life of a soldier named Beckman who returns from Siberia to Germany after three years of captivity to find his wife and his children but in vain. He opens very door fir this goal but all of them are closed against him. Even after he kills himself the river does not accept his body and returns him to the bank of the river. The only door that is open is the door of death and Beckman remains alone; he seems like the scarecrows of the fields. Due to the importance of the subject, in the period after the German war, Bur Short writes in the beginning of his play: “It is a play that no theater will perform it and no audience is able to see it.”? Its first execution took place – a day after the death of Bur Short – on 21st November 1947. The play includes five acts. Its style is expressionistic and its writing techniques are special to Bur Short himself: Techniques such as making use of special tactics, for de-familiarization and reversion as well as revolutionizing the spectator. After this the lists of the characters of the play, a short introduction to the prologues of the classical plays has been written down:
The Reflection of War in the family and the Relationship of the Family in the Plays of the Ù?Sacred defense War

The Reflection of War in the family and the Relationship of the Family in the Plays of the Ù?Sacred defense War

In this article it is tried to offer some definitions of the war from the social studies and from a dramatic point of view the role of the family in the creation of the play is discussed. At first we will deal with the investigation of the relationship of the families especially in the Iranian society at the time of the imposed war that was the context through which these plays have been created. In what follows the reflection of the family in the Ù?Sacred defense war plays such as 31 / 6 / 77, three parts of the pure life of a polite and beautiful young man, murmurs behind the front lines written by Ali Reza Naderi, Zemestan 66 by Mohammad Yagoobi, Nahre Firooz Abad ( First Part : Special care taking ) written by Mohammad Rahmanian, Asmaeeb and Dahani Por az Kalagh written by Jamshid Khanian have been investigated. In the end the Iranian plays mentioned above will be comparatively investigated with a foreign successful example, “All My Sons”? by Arthur Miller, the American writer.
Recognition of the War Scenes in Henry V

Recognition of the War Scenes in Henry V

In order to investigate the war scenes in Henry V, it was necessary to study all the play. This play was read by the writer many times. For the clearer and deeper understanding of it, the supervisor advised me to do form studies, semiotics, and ethnological studies as well as to study the history of theater and literary criticism as well as the analyses of the story of the play. Studying the above mentioned subjects has opened new horizons for the writer of this article: mythology, religious studies, theology as well as political sciences. While studying these areas, the writer understood the similarities, harmony as well as notable differences among the European tales and myths and to an extent among the Egyptian as well as between the Roodani and Mithraism stories with the play mentioned. The play was read once more and the similarities, harmony as well as notable differences were written down. In the research that follows the major and special characters of the play have been investigated in a positivistic as well as scientific way from the point of view of mythology, form and their roles in the story of the play.
Epic, Iranian Epic Writing and the Resistance and Epical Drama

Epic, Iranian Epic Writing and the Resistance and Epical Drama

Understanding epical thinking is in need of studying the genres so as its historical developments and its origins as well as more importantly its historical changes are made apparent. Epic is a unique phenomenon. It is an art and an expression that is able to revitalize the life of the human beings with the special and strange power that it has. Therefore not every event is regarded as epic. From a historical point of view epic is an applicable, correcting, humanitarian art and it is against all destruction and artificiality. Its great example is the classical Greek drama. The writer gives life to the ethics and gender on the stage so as he damns every incongruent deed and behavior of his time.
investigating the semiotics of place in the theater of the the U? Sacred defence War

investigating the semiotics of place in the theater of the the U? Sacred defence War

of “Tadoj Cosan’s”? categorization each of which has a very important and effective role in the production of meaning. Among these signs, the terms or in other words the written text of the dramatic event – the only thing that remains as reminiscence in a written form – is a basic element in the ideas of many of the scholars. Even though, the study and investigation of the semiotics of the signs seems to be more attractive in performance domain due to the more completed form of any theatrical form. But the special study of the written text and discussion over the system of signs of the words and terms is of great importance because this part of the sign systems has got the highest and the most important role in the production of meaning. Any text of the dramatic event has got in them many elements that create meaning which are in turn related with a system of signs that is directly related to a sign system. Some others are by inference and intimation in the service of the other sign systems.

Investigating the Semiotics of Place in the Theater of the Ù?Sacred Defense War

Theater is a system of sign. A collection of different signs based on the 13 categories of “Tadoj Cosan’s”? categorization each of which has a very important and effective role in the production of meaning. Among these signs, the terms or in other words the written text of the dramatic event – the only thing that remains as reminiscence in a written form – is a basic element in the ideas of many of the scholars. Even though, the study and investigation of the semiotics of the signs seems to be more attractive in performance domain due to the more completed form of any theatrical form. But the special study of the written text and discussion over the system of signs of the words and terms is of great importance because this part of the sign systems has got the highest and the most important role in the production of meaning. Any text of the dramatic event has got in them many elements that create meaning which are in turn related with a system of signs that is directly related to a sign system. Some others are by inference and intimation in the service of the other sign systems.

Investigating the Production of the Ù?Sacred Defense War Plays (Text to Performance)

Iran is a country with a history that is unique from the point of view of colorfulness and variety. This country has experienced a lot of suffering and misfortunes and in spite of all these bitter events one has to be proud of this old and civilized country as well as with well known and famous generals. Those who did not suffer in their lives are not worthy of happiness.

The Systematized Methods of the Theater of Resistance (From the Text to the Execution)

The earth on which we live is a part of the universe. The human beings have created special “political, economical and social systems”?. We are making use of different economical systems such as Shahrvand Shopping Centers and different transportations means inside and outside the cities. Sometimes we are suffering from the inside systems of our bodies such as our digesting system. Our body’s main important organ, that is our mind and our Neurological Central system, is a very strange system in our body that is dealing with the ways of controlling our lives. In the first look, all those systems that we have accounted for seem to be very different from each other. So why do we call all of them systems? The reason is that all of them are similar to each other from one point of view. Of course they are systems that form some parts of our body but all of these systems are dependant on each other and they have mutual correlations with each other. Referring to Dehkhoda and Moein dictionaries clarifies that the term system means method and ways and in this way it is possible from the beginning to know that for every intention and goal or to achieve at any concept it is possible to make use of different systems and basically a system does not deal with the approval or rejection of other systems. John Parker in his book of Systematization says: “. . . . . . . . .The systems were thought of as causing distinctions; while they were keeping their coherence for preservation.”?

Epic, Iranian Epic Writing and the Resistance and Epical Drama

Understanding epical thinking is in need of studying the genres so as its historical developments and its origins as well as more importantly its historical changes are made apparent. Epic is a unique phenomenon. It is an art and an expression that is able to revitalize the life of the human beings with the special and strange power that it has. Therefore not every event is regarded as epic. From a historical point of view epic is an applicable, correcting, humanitarian art and it is against all destruction and artificiality. Its great example is the classical Greek drama. The writer gives life to the ethics and gender on the stage so as he damns every incongruent deed and behavior of his time.

The Reflection of War in the family and the Relationship of the Family in the Plays of the Ù?Sacred defense War

In this article it is tried to offer some definitions of the war from the social studies and from a dramatic point of view the role of the family in the creation of the play is discussed. At first we will deal with the investigation of the relationship of the families especially in the Iranian society at the time of the imposed war that was the context through which these plays have been created. In what follows the reflection of the family in the Ù?Sacred defense war plays such as 31 / 6 / 77, three parts of the pure life of a polite and beautiful young man, murmurs behind the front lines written by Ali Reza Naderi, Zemestan 66 by Mohammad Yagoobi, Nahre Firooz Abad ( First Part : Special care taking ) written by Mohammad Rahmanian, Asmaeeb and Dahani Por az Kalagh written by Jamshid Khanian have been investigated. In the end the Iranian plays mentioned above will be comparatively investigated with a foreign successful example, “All My Sons”? by Arthur Miller, the American writer.

Surveying a War Play “Beyond the Back Door”? Written by “Wolfgang Bur Short”?

Beyond the Back Door is a distressing explanation of the life of a soldier named Beckman who returns from Siberia to Germany after three years of captivity to find his wife and his children but in vain. He opens very door fir this goal but all of them are closed against him. Even after he kills himself the river does not accept his body and returns him to the bank of the river. The only door that is open is the door of death and Beckman remains alone; he seems like the scarecrows of the fields. Due to the importance of the subject, in the period after the German war, Bur Short writes in the beginning of his play: “It is a play that no theater will perform it and no audience is able to see it.”? Its first execution took place – a day after the death of Bur Short – on 21st November 1947. The play includes five acts. Its style is expressionistic and its writing techniques are special to Bur Short himself: Techniques such as making use of special tactics, for de-familiarization and reversion as well as revolutionizing the spectator. After this the lists of the characters of the play, a short introduction to the prologues of the classical plays has been written down:

Studying and Reviewing “War”? in Some Plays: Plays in Ancient Greece, Shakespeare’s Plays and Bertolt Brecht’s Plays

Hazrat Imam Ali: Any person whose two days of life are similar is a loser. Paradox is the main element of dramatic works. And we need two powers opposite each other in order to form any play; the two powers that one of which intends to change the current situation and the other one intends to keep the current situation. Therefore, all of the elements of the play and other elements are influenced by the intention of these two powers. And they develop parallel with these powers. We can observe “Clash”? in other narrative forms too. These other forms of narrative forms are namely myth, legend, story, old story, narrative movie, etc. all of these mentioned narrative forms find identity by getting help from clash and fighting. They change into an attractive possibility for following up an idea and target which is pre-identified by the writer. And they finally achieve a form of development and result. We can find one of the most beautiful forms of paradox in the sentence said by Hazrat Imam Ali [The first imam of the Shiite people] that was written at the beginning of the article. War is one of the outstanding appearances of paradox and clash. What ever the motivation of war is, it benefits from two opposing powers.

Sacred Defense Theatre and the Necessity of Revising Its Objectives, Policies and Strategies

As a wide spread phenomenon, war influences different aspects of life of a nation. And the reflection of war on social, political, economic, cultural and psychological aspects in a period of time of people’s lives remain for years after finishing of war. In this line, an important part of art and literature during the war or during the post war time is essentially allocated to reflecting and showing bitter realities or braveries and honorable championship of the war time. Numerous films, plays, novels and paintings - which have been created about the war and defending independence and the national identity - form the major part of cultural and artistic products during the recent century. Reflection of resistance of people of Vietnam and Korea and fights of many of Latin American and African countries for gaining independence and the reflection of these humanitarian experiences in the art and literature of the world are the most expressive documents for emphasizing on the responsible role of the artists in such periods of time; because no war reaches to its end point when it finishes. Although the sound of shooting bullets and explosions is not heard any more but the social, economic, cultural and psychological side effects of war continues till years after that. And even when the peace and tranquility comes back to that country, the effects of war time continues to influence invisibly not only on economic and financial sources but also on souls and minds of future generations such that it can also affect on ideology and general view of people about the life.

Studying Metaphoric Dramas

Despite passing more than two decades since resistance theatre started and in spite of making lots of efforts, holding different festivals and efforts made by thinkers in this fields, public welcome to this genre of theatre and quantity of works in this field are not satisfactory. In this article (Research), I intend to find the reason for this pathology. In order to achieve this goal, I will study signs of these works. By considering the accepted theory of “Allegory”? and “Metaphor”? presented by “Roman Jacobson”?, we will reach to two groups of “Figurative Drama”? and “Metaphorical Drama”?. These groups include four types of “Metaphor of Basic Poetry”?, “Metaphor of Basic Prose”?, “Allegory of Basic Poetry”? and “Allegory of Basic Prose”?. By conducting comparative study on resistance theatre and resistance cinema, we have reached to “Figurative Drama of Resistance Cinema”? and “Metaphorical Drama of Resistance Theatre”? as accepted models. Lack of knowledge about these two types of dramas and mixing them with them resulted in making lots of efforts in picturing war on theatre stage (With a metaphorical view). It is while it is in contrary with nature of theatre as a medium. And this lack of knowledge has been recognized as the root of this pathology. In our studies, we also came to the result that cliché subjects and limited plots are other weaknesses and damages in this field.
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