2012/07/15 - 10:08
Fars News Agency
About Martyr Allamah Balkhi, the Founder of Afghanistan's Revolutionary Literature
Navideshahed: July 14 is the martyrdom anniversary of martyr Allameh Seyed Esmael Balkhi, the revolutionary and literary character of Afghanistan. Although a half century has passed since the time that he was martyred, but still his name and memory is alive and eternal.
According to Fars News Agency, Allameh Seyed Esmael Balkhi was born in 1920 in Sarpol village located in Jozjan state. Balkhi lost his mother when he was a little child and he moved to Mashhad city along with father, brother and sister. After awhile he started his education in the Mashhad seminary.
During the years that he was present in Mashhad city, in addition to the religious sciences, he benefited from the library of Asaneh Moghadaseh of Imam Reza (AS) and he got familiar with the works of some thinkers and scholars of the world.
• The role of martyr Balkhi in the uprising of Goharshad Mosque of Mahshhad city
In 1935, martyr Balkhi got familiar with Sheikh Mohammad Taghi Behlol, one of the fighting leaders who would work on discovery veil. In the same year, the took part in the famous movement and uprising of Gohar Shad Mosque located in Mashhad city.
Based on the words of Khadijeh Balkhi, the daughter of martyr Balkhi, on the day of sanctuary and uprising, he was one of the lecturers of Gohar Shad Mosque. But he struggled so much to save himself from the massacre scene. He hid in Mashhad city several days. After that he went to Afghanistan secretly. From there he entered Herat city.
• Staying in Herat
When Balkhi left Mashhad city, he resided in Herat city and he continued his seminary education by his teacher Sheikh Mohammad Taher Ghandhari. In addition of learning lessons, he continued some other propaganda and cultural activities as well. Also the piece of Mirza Khan located in Herat city was the most important cultural headquarter for martyr Balkhi. Within a short period of time he was known as a popular and outstanding character and preacher among the people of Herat city.
The former government of Afghanistan that got concerned about the activities of martyr Balkhi, it did not allow martyr Balkhi to get out from Herat city and he had to stay in the same city for eight years. He got married in 1938 following his enforcement of staying in Herat city. After a year his firs child was born.
Ali Reza known as ‘Ali Agha’ was the only son of martyr Balkhi and he was captured and killed during the initial years after the coup of April 26 by the hand of the communist government.
• Political Activity
The main political activities of martyr Balkhi were started in 1953 by founding the party ‘Unity’ that some also called it as ‘Guidance’ too. This party started its work in Herat city. He and his colleagues were able to influence in the administrations and governmental offices and they absorbed some of the governmental, intellectual and cultural characters towards themselves.
During the same era, martyr Balkhi contacted with the characters who had the same beliefs in other cities of Afghanistan including Kabul and Mazar. By the expanded activities of Balkhi in Herat, the governmental authorities concluded that he is not a controllable person in Herat city and they ahd to banish him to Mazar Sharif.
Balkhi introduced ‘Seyed Heidar Ghotb’, one of the outstanding clerics of Herat city instead of himself and he himself had to move to Mazar Sharif.
• Activity in Mazar Sharif
The activities of martyr Balkhi in Mazar Sharif reached its climax by the familiarity of people with this great scholar and cleric. This issue caused that the political activities of martyr Balkhi to be expanded in the areas of north Afghanistan. Also some of the significant characteristics of the area such as Khajeh Mohammad Naeim, the military and security commander of Mazar Sharif was absorbed by martyr Balkhi.
Of course some of the sources have introduced Khajeh Mohammad Naeim as the founder of the political activities in north Afghanistan too and they have claimed that Khajeh Mohammad Naeim Kabuli has been the founder of Unity Party known as Guidance Party too and that Balkhi has been the second person who has moved in this way after him.
But Gholam Mohammad Ghobar has explicitly stated that martyr Balkhi has influenced Mohammad Naeim:
“The trial of Zamir gradually changed Khajeh and when he got familiar with Khajeh Esmael in Mazar Saharif city, he became another man. It means the words of Seyed Esmael Balkhi who was a patriotic cleric and a scholar and the one who was aware of the day affairs made him understand the corruption of administrations and the boring situation of Afghanistan. Therefore this issue influenced and affected Khajeh so much. The familiarity of Khajeh and Seyed soon was changed into a political friendship. Following this friendship, they established the party ‘Unity’…
Following the political repression which took place in Afghanistan, Balkhi and his friends thought of armed activities against the government and the first huge armed movement took place in March 1950. During this uprising they aimed to overthrow the Shah.
The armed uprising of Balkhi and his friends failed by the cheating one of their political friends and martyr Balkhi was arrested by the government and he was taken to the prison ‘Dahmzang’ located in Kabul city.
Mohammad Sadigh Farhang in the book ‘Afghanistan during the five recent centuries’ regarding the capture of Balkhi by the agents of Shah’s regime has written: “Through the announcement which was released by the government for this issue, Mr. Balkhi and some other persons had been arrested along with him and they were accused of overthrowing the government and cooperating with foreign agents. Also the government claimed that it has some strong documents which prove this claim.”
In 1964 due to the almost open political atmosphere, Balkhi was freed from prison and he started his intellectual and cultural activities once again. After freedom from prison, Balkhi did a historical trip which it could be considered as a turning point in the intellectual and cultural conflicts of the history for him.
In 1967, he tripped to Iraq, Syria and Iran and he met with the clerics of Najaf seminary and he gave speech among the clerics of the seminaries of these cities as well.
• Balkhi Met Imam Khomeini in Najaf
One of the most important visits of Balkhi in Najaf was his visit with Imam Khomeini. In the book ‘The Start of Dijur Night’ written by Seyed Eshagh Shojae which has been released in Iran has been mentioned: “Imam Khomeini against his method that usually he would not go somewhere to visit someone, when Allameh Balkhi arrived in Najaf, he went to his place to visit him. After that they held a detailed meeting at the house of Imam Khomeini. Also they discussed and negotiated about the future plans and programs as well.”
Also in the book ‘The Memorial of Allameh Balkhi’ written by Seyed Hassan Husseini which was released in 1989 in Tehran city has been mentioned that another visit took place between Imam Khomeini and martyr Balkhi. This visit was done in Karbala city and Balkhi read the poem ‘ Diur night’ to Imam Khomeini and Imam Khomeini regarding martyr Balkhi said: “Many goodness have been collected in the being of this great Seyed’. Also during the meeting that was held between Imam Khomeini and martyr Balkhi, Imam Khomeini pointed to the words of Balkhi and he said: “By this uprising and resistance, you proved that there is nothing impossible in the way of a revolutionary and Muslim man and everything can be possible.”
• Visiting the clerics and sources of imitations in Qom and Mashhad
After his trip to Iraq and Syria, martyr Balkhi came to Iran in 1968 and he was welcomed by the clerics and clergies and sources of imitation in Qom city. In addition of visiting these clerics, clergies and sources of imitation, he gave speech among the clerics in Qom seminary as well.
After that he moved to Mashhad city and in this city he was also welcomed by the sources of imitation and clerics and he gave speech in the seminary school titled ‘Abbas Gholi Khan’ located in Mashhad city.
• The martyrdom of martyr Balkhi
After this historical trip, martyr Balkhi returned to Afghanistan and he was welcomed by many persons and after a few times, he moved to the central areas of Afghanistan. Since he got sick in the way, he did not complete his trip and he returned to Kabul city. He was hospitalized in Ali Abad hospital located in Kabul city. According to some of the writings and sources, he was poisoned and martyred in this hospital.
The pure body of this great cleric was buried on July 15, 1968 in the domain of Afshar Mountain located in Kabul city.